Vector, Array, List and Data Frame are 4 basic data types defined in R. Knowing the differences between them will help you use R more efficiently.

**1. Vector**

All elements must be of the same type.

For example, the following code create two vectors.

name <- c("Mike", "Lucy", "John") age <- c(20, 25, 30)

**2. Array & Matrix**

Matrix is a special kind of vector. A matrix is a vector with two additional attributes: the number of rows and the number of columns.

> x <- matrix(c(1,2,3,4), nrow=2, ncol=2) > x [,1] [,2] [1,] 1 3 [2,] 2 4

Similar to matrix, but arrays can have more than two dimensions.

**3. List**

List can contain elements of different types.

> y <- list(name="Mike", gender="M", company="ProgramCreek") > y $name [1] "Mike" $gender [1] "M" $company [1] "ProgramCreek"

**4. Date Frame **

A data frame is used for storing data tables. It is a list of vectors of equal length.

For example, you can create a date frame by using the following code:

> name <- c("Mike", "Lucy", "John") > age <- c(20, 25, 30) > student <- c(TRUE, FALSE, TRUE) > df = data.frame(name, age, student) > df name age student 1 Mike 20 TRUE 2 Lucy 25 FALSE 3 John 30 TRUE

translation please?

“matrix is a special kind of vector.” this statement is not correct.

matrix is â€‹â€‹a larger category than vector. It is a kind of inclusive relationship.

Thanks for that. Makes sense now

if you want it the second way you have to add another argument “byrow=TRUE” .By default r takes column wise

In your example,

`x <- matrix(c(1,2,3,4), nrow=2, ncol=2)`

gives

> x

[,1] [,2]

[1,] 1 3

[2,] 2 4

Why can’t it be

> x

[,1] [,2]

[1,] 1 2

[2,] 3 4

Does R implicitly assign columns first?

Clear and short explanation. Thanks