from __future__ import division, absolute_import, print_function

import os
import sys
import types
import re
import warnings

from numpy.core.numerictypes import issubclass_, issubsctype, issubdtype
from numpy.core import ndarray, ufunc, asarray
import numpy as np

# getargspec and formatargspec were removed in Python 3.6
from numpy.compat import getargspec, formatargspec

__all__ = [
    'issubclass_', 'issubsctype', 'issubdtype', 'deprecate',
    'deprecate_with_doc', 'get_include', 'info', 'source', 'who',
    'lookfor', 'byte_bounds', 'safe_eval'

def get_include():
    Return the directory that contains the NumPy \\*.h header files.

    Extension modules that need to compile against NumPy should use this
    function to locate the appropriate include directory.

    When using ``distutils``, for example in ````.

        import numpy as np
        Extension('extension_name', ...

    import numpy
    if numpy.show_config is None:
        # running from numpy source directory
        d = os.path.join(os.path.dirname(numpy.__file__), 'core', 'include')
        # using installed numpy core headers
        import numpy.core as core
        d = os.path.join(os.path.dirname(core.__file__), 'include')
    return d

def _set_function_name(func, name):
    func.__name__ = name
    return func

class _Deprecate(object):
    Decorator class to deprecate old functions.

    Refer to `deprecate` for details.

    See Also


    def __init__(self, old_name=None, new_name=None, message=None):
        self.old_name = old_name
        self.new_name = new_name
        self.message = message

    def __call__(self, func, *args, **kwargs):
        Decorator call.  Refer to ``decorate``.

        old_name = self.old_name
        new_name = self.new_name
        message = self.message

        import warnings
        if old_name is None:
                old_name = func.__name__
            except AttributeError:
                old_name = func.__name__
        if new_name is None:
            depdoc = "`%s` is deprecated!" % old_name
            depdoc = "`%s` is deprecated, use `%s` instead!" % \
                     (old_name, new_name)

        if message is not None:
            depdoc += "\n" + message

        def newfunc(*args,**kwds):
            """`arrayrange` is deprecated, use `arange` instead!"""
            warnings.warn(depdoc, DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2)
            return func(*args, **kwds)

        newfunc = _set_function_name(newfunc, old_name)
        doc = func.__doc__
        if doc is None:
            doc = depdoc
            doc = '\n\n'.join([depdoc, doc])
        newfunc.__doc__ = doc
            d = func.__dict__
        except AttributeError:
        return newfunc

def deprecate(*args, **kwargs):
    Issues a DeprecationWarning, adds warning to `old_name`'s
    docstring, rebinds ``old_name.__name__`` and returns the new
    function object.

    This function may also be used as a decorator.

    func : function
        The function to be deprecated.
    old_name : str, optional
        The name of the function to be deprecated. Default is None, in
        which case the name of `func` is used.
    new_name : str, optional
        The new name for the function. Default is None, in which case the
        deprecation message is that `old_name` is deprecated. If given, the
        deprecation message is that `old_name` is deprecated and `new_name`
        should be used instead.
    message : str, optional
        Additional explanation of the deprecation.  Displayed in the
        docstring after the warning.

    old_func : function
        The deprecated function.

    Note that ``olduint`` returns a value after printing Deprecation

    >>> olduint = np.deprecate(np.uint)
    >>> olduint(6)
    DeprecationWarning: uint32 is deprecated
      warnings.warn(str1, DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2)

    # Deprecate may be run as a function or as a decorator
    # If run as a function, we initialise the decorator class
    # and execute its __call__ method.

    if args:
        fn = args[0]
        args = args[1:]

        # backward compatibility -- can be removed
        # after next release
        if 'newname' in kwargs:
            kwargs['new_name'] = kwargs.pop('newname')
        if 'oldname' in kwargs:
            kwargs['old_name'] = kwargs.pop('oldname')

        return _Deprecate(*args, **kwargs)(fn)
        return _Deprecate(*args, **kwargs)

deprecate_with_doc = lambda msg: _Deprecate(message=msg)

# Determine if two arrays can share memory

def byte_bounds(a):
    Returns pointers to the end-points of an array.

    a : ndarray
        Input array. It must conform to the Python-side of the array

    (low, high) : tuple of 2 integers
        The first integer is the first byte of the array, the second
        integer is just past the last byte of the array.  If `a` is not
        contiguous it will not use every byte between the (`low`, `high`)

    >>> I = np.eye(2, dtype='f'); I.dtype
    >>> low, high = np.byte_bounds(I)
    >>> high - low == I.size*I.itemsize
    >>> I = np.eye(2, dtype='G'); I.dtype
    >>> low, high = np.byte_bounds(I)
    >>> high - low == I.size*I.itemsize

    ai = a.__array_interface__
    a_data = ai['data'][0]
    astrides = ai['strides']
    ashape = ai['shape']
    bytes_a = asarray(a).dtype.itemsize

    a_low = a_high = a_data
    if astrides is None:
        # contiguous case
        a_high += a.size * bytes_a
        for shape, stride in zip(ashape, astrides):
            if stride < 0:
                a_low += (shape-1)*stride
                a_high += (shape-1)*stride
        a_high += bytes_a
    return a_low, a_high

# Function for output and information on the variables used.

def who(vardict=None):
    Print the NumPy arrays in the given dictionary.

    If there is no dictionary passed in or `vardict` is None then returns
    NumPy arrays in the globals() dictionary (all NumPy arrays in the

    vardict : dict, optional
        A dictionary possibly containing ndarrays.  Default is globals().

    out : None
        Returns 'None'.

    Prints out the name, shape, bytes and type of all of the ndarrays
    present in `vardict`.

    >>> a = np.arange(10)
    >>> b = np.ones(20)
    >>> np.who()
    Name            Shape            Bytes            Type
    a               10               40               int32
    b               20               160              float64
    Upper bound on total bytes  =       200

    >>> d = {'x': np.arange(2.0), 'y': np.arange(3.0), 'txt': 'Some str',
    ... 'idx':5}
    >>> np.who(d)
    Name            Shape            Bytes            Type
    y               3                24               float64
    x               2                16               float64
    Upper bound on total bytes  =       40

    if vardict is None:
        frame = sys._getframe().f_back
        vardict = frame.f_globals
    sta = []
    cache = {}
    for name in vardict.keys():
        if isinstance(vardict[name], ndarray):
            var = vardict[name]
            idv = id(var)
            if idv in cache.keys():
                namestr = name + " (%s)" % cache[idv]
                original = 0
                cache[idv] = name
                namestr = name
                original = 1
            shapestr = " x ".join(map(str, var.shape))
            bytestr = str(var.nbytes)
            sta.append([namestr, shapestr, bytestr,,

    maxname = 0
    maxshape = 0
    maxbyte = 0
    totalbytes = 0
    for k in range(len(sta)):
        val = sta[k]
        if maxname < len(val[0]):
            maxname = len(val[0])
        if maxshape < len(val[1]):
            maxshape = len(val[1])
        if maxbyte < len(val[2]):
            maxbyte = len(val[2])
        if val[4]:
            totalbytes += int(val[2])

    if len(sta) > 0:
        sp1 = max(10, maxname)
        sp2 = max(10, maxshape)
        sp3 = max(10, maxbyte)
        prval = "Name %s Shape %s Bytes %s Type" % (sp1*' ', sp2*' ', sp3*' ')
        print(prval + "\n" + "="*(len(prval)+5) + "\n")

    for k in range(len(sta)):
        val = sta[k]
        print("%s %s %s %s %s %s %s" % (val[0], ' '*(sp1-len(val[0])+4),
                                        val[1], ' '*(sp2-len(val[1])+5),
                                        val[2], ' '*(sp3-len(val[2])+5),
    print("\nUpper bound on total bytes  =       %d" % totalbytes)


# NOTE:  pydoc defines a help function which works similarly to this
#  except it uses a pager to take over the screen.

# combine name and arguments and split to multiple lines of width
# characters.  End lines on a comma and begin argument list indented with
# the rest of the arguments.
def _split_line(name, arguments, width):
    firstwidth = len(name)
    k = firstwidth
    newstr = name
    sepstr = ", "
    arglist = arguments.split(sepstr)
    for argument in arglist:
        if k == firstwidth:
            addstr = ""
            addstr = sepstr
        k = k + len(argument) + len(addstr)
        if k > width:
            k = firstwidth + 1 + len(argument)
            newstr = newstr + ",\n" + " "*(firstwidth+2) + argument
            newstr = newstr + addstr + argument
    return newstr

_namedict = None
_dictlist = None

# Traverse all module directories underneath globals
# to see if something is defined
def _makenamedict(module='numpy'):
    module = __import__(module, globals(), locals(), [])
    thedict = {module.__name__:module.__dict__}
    dictlist = [module.__name__]
    totraverse = [module.__dict__]
    while True:
        if len(totraverse) == 0:
        thisdict = totraverse.pop(0)
        for x in thisdict.keys():
            if isinstance(thisdict[x], types.ModuleType):
                modname = thisdict[x].__name__
                if modname not in dictlist:
                    moddict = thisdict[x].__dict__
                    thedict[modname] = moddict
    return thedict, dictlist

def _info(obj, output=sys.stdout):
    """Provide information about ndarray obj.

    obj : ndarray
        Must be ndarray, not checked.
        Where printed output goes.

    Copied over from the numarray module prior to its removal.
    Adapted somewhat as only numpy is an option now.

    Called by info.

    extra = ""
    tic = ""
    bp = lambda x: x
    cls = getattr(obj, '__class__', type(obj))
    nm = getattr(cls, '__name__', cls)
    strides = obj.strides
    endian = obj.dtype.byteorder

    print("class: ", nm, file=output)
    print("shape: ", obj.shape, file=output)
    print("strides: ", strides, file=output)
    print("itemsize: ", obj.itemsize, file=output)
    print("aligned: ", bp(obj.flags.aligned), file=output)
    print("contiguous: ", bp(obj.flags.contiguous), file=output)
    print("fortran: ", obj.flags.fortran, file=output)
        "data pointer: %s%s" % (hex(obj.ctypes._as_parameter_.value), extra),
    print("byteorder: ", end=' ', file=output)
    if endian in ['|', '=']:
        print("%s%s%s" % (tic, sys.byteorder, tic), file=output)
        byteswap = False
    elif endian == '>':
        print("%sbig%s" % (tic, tic), file=output)
        byteswap = sys.byteorder != "big"
        print("%slittle%s" % (tic, tic), file=output)
        byteswap = sys.byteorder != "little"
    print("byteswap: ", bp(byteswap), file=output)
    print("type: %s" % obj.dtype, file=output)

def info(object=None, maxwidth=76, output=sys.stdout, toplevel='numpy'):
    Get help information for a function, class, or module.

    object : object or str, optional
        Input object or name to get information about. If `object` is a
        numpy object, its docstring is given. If it is a string, available
        modules are searched for matching objects.  If None, information
        about `info` itself is returned.
    maxwidth : int, optional
        Printing width.
    output : file like object, optional
        File like object that the output is written to, default is
        ``stdout``.  The object has to be opened in 'w' or 'a' mode.
    toplevel : str, optional
        Start search at this level.

    See Also
    source, lookfor

    When used interactively with an object, ```` is equivalent
    to ``help(obj)`` on the Python prompt or ``obj?`` on the IPython

    >>> # doctest: +SKIP
       polyval(p, x)
         Evaluate the polynomial p at x.

    When using a string for `object` it is possible to get multiple results.

    >>>'fft') # doctest: +SKIP
         *** Found in numpy ***
    Core FFT routines
         *** Found in numpy.fft ***
     fft(a, n=None, axis=-1)
         *** Repeat reference found in numpy.fft.fftpack ***
         *** Total of 3 references found. ***

    global _namedict, _dictlist
    # Local import to speed up numpy's import time.
    import pydoc
    import inspect

    if (hasattr(object, '_ppimport_importer') or
           hasattr(object, '_ppimport_module')):
        object = object._ppimport_module
    elif hasattr(object, '_ppimport_attr'):
        object = object._ppimport_attr

    if object is None:
    elif isinstance(object, ndarray):
        _info(object, output=output)
    elif isinstance(object, str):
        if _namedict is None:
            _namedict, _dictlist = _makenamedict(toplevel)
        numfound = 0
        objlist = []
        for namestr in _dictlist:
                obj = _namedict[namestr][object]
                if id(obj) in objlist:
                    print("\n     "
                          "*** Repeat reference found in %s *** " % namestr,
                    print("     *** Found in %s ***" % namestr, file=output)
                    print("-"*maxwidth, file=output)
                numfound += 1
            except KeyError:
        if numfound == 0:
            print("Help for %s not found." % object, file=output)
            print("\n     "
                  "*** Total of %d references found. ***" % numfound,

    elif inspect.isfunction(object):
        name = object.__name__
        arguments = formatargspec(*getargspec(object))

        if len(name+arguments) > maxwidth:
            argstr = _split_line(name, arguments, maxwidth)
            argstr = name + arguments

        print(" " + argstr + "\n", file=output)
        print(inspect.getdoc(object), file=output)

    elif inspect.isclass(object):
        name = object.__name__
        arguments = "()"
            if hasattr(object, '__init__'):
                arguments = formatargspec(
                arglist = arguments.split(', ')
                if len(arglist) > 1:
                    arglist[1] = "("+arglist[1]
                    arguments = ", ".join(arglist[1:])

        if len(name+arguments) > maxwidth:
            argstr = _split_line(name, arguments, maxwidth)
            argstr = name + arguments

        print(" " + argstr + "\n", file=output)
        doc1 = inspect.getdoc(object)
        if doc1 is None:
            if hasattr(object, '__init__'):
                print(inspect.getdoc(object.__init__), file=output)
            print(inspect.getdoc(object), file=output)

        methods = pydoc.allmethods(object)
        if methods != []:
            print("\n\nMethods:\n", file=output)
            for meth in methods:
                if meth[0] == '_':
                thisobj = getattr(object, meth, None)
                if thisobj is not None:
                    methstr, other = pydoc.splitdoc(
                            inspect.getdoc(thisobj) or "None"
                print("  %s  --  %s" % (meth, methstr), file=output)

    elif (sys.version_info[0] < 3
            and isinstance(object, types.InstanceType)):
        # check for __call__ method
        # types.InstanceType is the type of the instances of oldstyle classes
        print("Instance of class: ", object.__class__.__name__, file=output)
        if hasattr(object, '__call__'):
            arguments = formatargspec(
            arglist = arguments.split(', ')
            if len(arglist) > 1:
                arglist[1] = "("+arglist[1]
                arguments = ", ".join(arglist[1:])
                arguments = "()"

            if hasattr(object, 'name'):
                name = "%s" %
                name = "<name>"
            if len(name+arguments) > maxwidth:
                argstr = _split_line(name, arguments, maxwidth)
                argstr = name + arguments

            print(" " + argstr + "\n", file=output)
            doc = inspect.getdoc(object.__call__)
            if doc is not None:
                print(inspect.getdoc(object.__call__), file=output)
            print(inspect.getdoc(object), file=output)

            print(inspect.getdoc(object), file=output)

    elif inspect.ismethod(object):
        name = object.__name__
        arguments = formatargspec(
        arglist = arguments.split(', ')
        if len(arglist) > 1:
            arglist[1] = "("+arglist[1]
            arguments = ", ".join(arglist[1:])
            arguments = "()"

        if len(name+arguments) > maxwidth:
            argstr = _split_line(name, arguments, maxwidth)
            argstr = name + arguments

        print(" " + argstr + "\n", file=output)
        print(inspect.getdoc(object), file=output)

    elif hasattr(object, '__doc__'):
        print(inspect.getdoc(object), file=output)

def source(object, output=sys.stdout):
    Print or write to a file the source code for a NumPy object.

    The source code is only returned for objects written in Python. Many
    functions and classes are defined in C and will therefore not return
    useful information.

    object : numpy object
        Input object. This can be any object (function, class, module,
    output : file object, optional
        If `output` not supplied then source code is printed to screen
        (sys.stdout).  File object must be created with either write 'w' or
        append 'a' modes.

    See Also
    lookfor, info

    >>> np.source(np.interp)                        #doctest: +SKIP
    In file: /usr/lib/python2.6/dist-packages/numpy/lib/
    def interp(x, xp, fp, left=None, right=None):
        \"\"\".... (full docstring printed)\"\"\"
        if isinstance(x, (float, int, number)):
            return compiled_interp([x], xp, fp, left, right).item()
            return compiled_interp(x, xp, fp, left, right)

    The source code is only returned for objects written in Python.

    >>> np.source(np.array)                         #doctest: +SKIP
    Not available for this object.

    # Local import to speed up numpy's import time.
    import inspect
        print("In file: %s\n" % inspect.getsourcefile(object), file=output)
        print(inspect.getsource(object), file=output)
        print("Not available for this object.", file=output)

# Cache for lookfor: {id(module): {name: (docstring, kind, index), ...}...}
# where kind: "func", "class", "module", "object"
# and index: index in breadth-first namespace traversal
_lookfor_caches = {}

# regexp whose match indicates that the string may contain a function
# signature
_function_signature_re = re.compile(r"[a-z0-9_]+\(.*[,=].*\)", re.I)

def lookfor(what, module=None, import_modules=True, regenerate=False,
    Do a keyword search on docstrings.

    A list of of objects that matched the search is displayed,
    sorted by relevance. All given keywords need to be found in the
    docstring for it to be returned as a result, but the order does
    not matter.

    what : str
        String containing words to look for.
    module : str or list, optional
        Name of module(s) whose docstrings to go through.
    import_modules : bool, optional
        Whether to import sub-modules in packages. Default is True.
    regenerate : bool, optional
        Whether to re-generate the docstring cache. Default is False.
    output : file-like, optional
        File-like object to write the output to. If omitted, use a pager.

    See Also
    source, info

    Relevance is determined only roughly, by checking if the keywords occur
    in the function name, at the start of a docstring, etc.

    >>> np.lookfor('binary representation')
    Search results for 'binary representation'
        Return the binary representation of the input number as a string.
        Given a binary dump as given by GNU od -b, look for long double
        Return a string representation of a number in the given base system.

    import pydoc

    # Cache
    cache = _lookfor_generate_cache(module, import_modules, regenerate)

    # Search
    # XXX: maybe using a real stemming search engine would be better?
    found = []
    whats = str(what).lower().split()
    if not whats:

    for name, (docstring, kind, index) in cache.items():
        if kind in ('module', 'object'):
            # don't show modules or objects
        ok = True
        doc = docstring.lower()
        for w in whats:
            if w not in doc:
                ok = False
        if ok:

    # Relevance sort
    # XXX: this is full Harrison-Stetson heuristics now,
    # XXX: it probably could be improved

    kind_relevance = {'func': 1000, 'class': 1000,
                      'module': -1000, 'object': -1000}

    def relevance(name, docstr, kind, index):
        r = 0
        # do the keywords occur within the start of the docstring?
        first_doc = "\n".join(docstr.lower().strip().split("\n")[:3])
        r += sum([200 for w in whats if w in first_doc])
        # do the keywords occur in the function name?
        r += sum([30 for w in whats if w in name])
        # is the full name long?
        r += -len(name) * 5
        # is the object of bad type?
        r += kind_relevance.get(kind, -1000)
        # is the object deep in namespace hierarchy?
        r += -name.count('.') * 10
        r += max(-index / 100, -100)
        return r

    def relevance_value(a):
        return relevance(a, *cache[a])

    # Pretty-print
    s = "Search results for '%s'" % (' '.join(whats))
    help_text = [s, "-"*len(s)]
    for name in found[::-1]:
        doc, kind, ix = cache[name]

        doclines = [line.strip() for line in doc.strip().split("\n")
                    if line.strip()]

        # find a suitable short description
            first_doc = doclines[0].strip()
                first_doc = doclines[1].strip()
        except IndexError:
            first_doc = ""
        help_text.append("%s\n    %s" % (name, first_doc))

    if not found:
        help_text.append("Nothing found.")

    # Output
    if output is not None:
    elif len(help_text) > 10:
        pager = pydoc.getpager()

def _lookfor_generate_cache(module, import_modules, regenerate):
    Generate docstring cache for given module.

    module : str, None, module
        Module for which to generate docstring cache
    import_modules : bool
        Whether to import sub-modules in packages.
    regenerate : bool
        Re-generate the docstring cache

    cache : dict {obj_full_name: (docstring, kind, index), ...}
        Docstring cache for the module, either cached one (regenerate=False)
        or newly generated.

    global _lookfor_caches
    # Local import to speed up numpy's import time.
    import inspect

    if sys.version_info[0] >= 3:
        # In Python3 stderr, stdout are text files.
        from io import StringIO
        from StringIO import StringIO

    if module is None:
        module = "numpy"

    if isinstance(module, str):
        except ImportError:
            return {}
        module = sys.modules[module]
    elif isinstance(module, list) or isinstance(module, tuple):
        cache = {}
        for mod in module:
            cache.update(_lookfor_generate_cache(mod, import_modules,
        return cache

    if id(module) in _lookfor_caches and not regenerate:
        return _lookfor_caches[id(module)]

    # walk items and collect docstrings
    cache = {}
    _lookfor_caches[id(module)] = cache
    seen = {}
    index = 0
    stack = [(module.__name__, module)]
    while stack:
        name, item = stack.pop(0)
        if id(item) in seen:
        seen[id(item)] = True

        index += 1
        kind = "object"

        if inspect.ismodule(item):
            kind = "module"
                _all = item.__all__
            except AttributeError:
                _all = None

            # import sub-packages
            if import_modules and hasattr(item, '__path__'):
                for pth in item.__path__:
                    for mod_path in os.listdir(pth):
                        this_py = os.path.join(pth, mod_path)
                        init_py = os.path.join(pth, mod_path, '')
                        if (os.path.isfile(this_py) and
                            to_import = mod_path[:-3]
                        elif os.path.isfile(init_py):
                            to_import = mod_path
                        if to_import == '__init__':

                            old_stdout = sys.stdout
                            old_stderr = sys.stderr
                                sys.stdout = StringIO()
                                sys.stderr = StringIO()
                                __import__("%s.%s" % (name, to_import))
                                sys.stdout = old_stdout
                                sys.stderr = old_stderr
                        # Catch SystemExit, too
                        except BaseException:

            for n, v in _getmembers(item):
                    item_name = getattr(v, '__name__', "%s.%s" % (name, n))
                    mod_name = getattr(v, '__module__', None)
                except NameError:
                    # ref. SWIG's global cvars
                    #    NameError: Unknown C global variable
                    item_name = "%s.%s" % (name, n)
                    mod_name = None
                if '.' not in item_name and mod_name:
                    item_name = "%s.%s" % (mod_name, item_name)

                if not item_name.startswith(name + '.'):
                    # don't crawl "foreign" objects
                    if isinstance(v, ufunc):
                        # ... unless they are ufuncs
                elif not (inspect.ismodule(v) or _all is None or n in _all):
                stack.append(("%s.%s" % (name, n), v))
        elif inspect.isclass(item):
            kind = "class"
            for n, v in _getmembers(item):
                stack.append(("%s.%s" % (name, n), v))
        elif hasattr(item, "__call__"):
            kind = "func"

            doc = inspect.getdoc(item)
        except NameError:
            # ref SWIG's NameError: Unknown C global variable
            doc = None
        if doc is not None:
            cache[name] = (doc, kind, index)

    return cache

def _getmembers(item):
    import inspect
        members = inspect.getmembers(item)
    except Exception:
        members = [(x, getattr(item, x)) for x in dir(item)
                   if hasattr(item, x)]
    return members


# The following SafeEval class and company are adapted from Michael Spencer's
# ASPN Python Cookbook recipe:
# Accordingly it is mostly Copyright 2006 by Michael Spencer.
# The recipe, like most of the other ASPN Python Cookbook recipes was made
# available under the Python license.

# It has been modified to:
#   * handle unary -/+
#   * support True/False/None
#   * raise SyntaxError instead of a custom exception.

class SafeEval(object):
    Object to evaluate constant string expressions.

    This includes strings with lists, dicts and tuples using the abstract
    syntax tree created by ``compiler.parse``.

    .. deprecated:: 1.10.0

    See Also

    def __init__(self):
        # 2014-10-15, 1.10
        warnings.warn("SafeEval is deprecated in 1.10 and will be removed.",
                      DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2)

    def visit(self, node):
        cls = node.__class__
        meth = getattr(self, 'visit' + cls.__name__, self.default)
        return meth(node)

    def default(self, node):
        raise SyntaxError("Unsupported source construct: %s"
                          % node.__class__)

    def visitExpression(self, node):
        return self.visit(node.body)

    def visitNum(self, node):
        return node.n

    def visitStr(self, node):
        return node.s

    def visitBytes(self, node):
        return node.s

    def visitDict(self, node,**kw):
        return dict([(self.visit(k), self.visit(v))
                     for k, v in zip(node.keys, node.values)])

    def visitTuple(self, node):
        return tuple([self.visit(i) for i in node.elts])

    def visitList(self, node):
        return [self.visit(i) for i in node.elts]

    def visitUnaryOp(self, node):
        import ast
        if isinstance(node.op, ast.UAdd):
            return +self.visit(node.operand)
        elif isinstance(node.op, ast.USub):
            return -self.visit(node.operand)
            raise SyntaxError("Unknown unary op: %r" % node.op)

    def visitName(self, node):
        if == 'False':
            return False
        elif == 'True':
            return True
        elif == 'None':
            return None
            raise SyntaxError("Unknown name: %s" %

    def visitNameConstant(self, node):
        return node.value

def safe_eval(source):
    Protected string evaluation.

    Evaluate a string containing a Python literal expression without
    allowing the execution of arbitrary non-literal code.

    source : str
        The string to evaluate.

    obj : object
       The result of evaluating `source`.

        If the code has invalid Python syntax, or if it contains
        non-literal code.

    >>> np.safe_eval('1')
    >>> np.safe_eval('[1, 2, 3]')
    [1, 2, 3]
    >>> np.safe_eval('{"foo": ("bar", 10.0)}')
    {'foo': ('bar', 10.0)}

    >>> np.safe_eval('import os')
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    SyntaxError: invalid syntax

    >>> np.safe_eval('open("/home/user/.ssh/id_dsa").read()')
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    SyntaxError: Unsupported source construct: compiler.ast.CallFunc

    # Local import to speed up numpy's import time.
    import ast

    return ast.literal_eval(source)

def _median_nancheck(data, result, axis, out):
    Utility function to check median result from data for NaN values at the end
    and return NaN in that case. Input result can also be a MaskedArray.

    data : array
        Input data to median function
    result : Array or MaskedArray
        Result of median function
    axis : {int, sequence of int, None}, optional
        Axis or axes along which the median was computed.
    out : ndarray, optional
        Output array in which to place the result.
    median : scalar or ndarray
        Median or NaN in axes which contained NaN in the input.
    if data.size == 0:
        return result
    data = np.rollaxis(data, axis, data.ndim)
    n = np.isnan(data[..., -1])
    # masked NaN values are ok
        n = n.filled(False)
    if result.ndim == 0:
        if n == True:
            warnings.warn("Invalid value encountered in median",
                          RuntimeWarning, stacklevel=3)
            if out is not None:
                out[...] = data.dtype.type(np.nan)
                result = out
                result = data.dtype.type(np.nan)
    elif np.count_nonzero(n.ravel()) > 0:
        warnings.warn("Invalid value encountered in median for" +
                      " %d results" % np.count_nonzero(n.ravel()),
                      RuntimeWarning, stacklevel=3)
        result[n] = np.nan
    return result