/*
 * Copyright (C) 2015 The Guava Authors
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except
 * in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 * http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License
 * is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express
 * or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under
 * the License.
 */

package com.google.common.hash;

import com.google.common.primitives.Longs;
import java.nio.ByteOrder;
import sun.misc.Unsafe;

/**
 * Utility functions for loading and storing values from a byte array.
 *
 * @author Kevin Damm
 * @author Kyle Maddison
 */
final class LittleEndianByteArray {

  /** The instance that actually does the work; delegates to Unsafe or a pure-Java fallback. */
  private static final LittleEndianBytes byteArray;

  /**
   * Load 8 bytes into long in a little endian manner, from the substring between position and
   * position + 8. The array must have at least 8 bytes from offset (inclusive).
   *
   * @param input the input bytes
   * @param offset the offset into the array at which to start
   * @return a long of a concatenated 8 bytes
   */
  static long load64(byte[] input, int offset) {
    // We don't want this in production code as this is the most critical part of the loop.
    assert input.length >= offset + 8;
    // Delegates to the fast (unsafe) version or the fallback.
    return byteArray.getLongLittleEndian(input, offset);
  }

  /**
   * Similar to load64, but allows offset + 8 > input.length, padding the result with zeroes. This
   * has to explicitly reverse the order of the bytes as it packs them into the result which makes
   * it slower than the native version.
   *
   * @param input the input bytes
   * @param offset the offset into the array at which to start reading
   * @param length the number of bytes from the input to read
   * @return a long of a concatenated 8 bytes
   */
  static long load64Safely(byte[] input, int offset, int length) {
    long result = 0;
    // Due to the way we shift, we can stop iterating once we've run out of data, the rest
    // of the result already being filled with zeros.

    // This loop is critical to performance, so please check HashBenchmark if altering it.
    int limit = Math.min(length, 8);
    for (int i = 0; i < limit; i++) {
      // Shift value left while iterating logically through the array.
      result |= (input[offset + i] & 0xFFL) << (i * 8);
    }
    return result;
  }

  /**
   * Store 8 bytes into the provided array at the indicated offset, using the value provided.
   *
   * @param sink the output byte array
   * @param offset the offset into the array at which to start writing
   * @param value the value to write
   */
  static void store64(byte[] sink, int offset, long value) {
    // We don't want to assert in production code.
    assert offset >= 0 && offset + 8 <= sink.length;
    // Delegates to the fast (unsafe)version or the fallback.
    byteArray.putLongLittleEndian(sink, offset, value);
  }

  /**
   * Load 4 bytes from the provided array at the indicated offset.
   *
   * @param source the input bytes
   * @param offset the offset into the array at which to start
   * @return the value found in the array in the form of a long
   */
  static int load32(byte[] source, int offset) {
    // TODO(user): Measure the benefit of delegating this to LittleEndianBytes also.
    return (source[offset] & 0xFF)
        | ((source[offset + 1] & 0xFF) << 8)
        | ((source[offset + 2] & 0xFF) << 16)
        | ((source[offset + 3] & 0xFF) << 24);
  }

  /**
   * Indicates that the loading of Unsafe was successful and the load and store operations will be
   * very efficient. May be useful for calling code to fall back on an alternative implementation
   * that is slower than Unsafe.get/store but faster than the pure-Java mask-and-shift.
   */
  static boolean usingUnsafe() {
    return (byteArray instanceof UnsafeByteArray);
  }

  /**
   * Common interface for retrieving a 64-bit long from a little-endian byte array.
   *
   * This abstraction allows us to use single-instruction load and put when available, or fall back
   * on the slower approach of using Longs.fromBytes(byte...).
   */
  private interface LittleEndianBytes {
    long getLongLittleEndian(byte[] array, int offset);

    void putLongLittleEndian(byte[] array, int offset, long value);
  }

  /**
   * The only reference to Unsafe is in this nested class. We set things up so that if
   * Unsafe.theUnsafe is inaccessible, the attempt to load the nested class fails, and the outer
   * class's static initializer can fall back on a non-Unsafe version.
   */
  private enum UnsafeByteArray implements LittleEndianBytes {
    // Do *not* change the order of these constants!
    UNSAFE_LITTLE_ENDIAN {
      @Override
      public long getLongLittleEndian(byte[] array, int offset) {
        return theUnsafe.getLong(array, (long) offset + BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET);
      }

      @Override
      public void putLongLittleEndian(byte[] array, int offset, long value) {
        theUnsafe.putLong(array, (long) offset + BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET, value);
      }
    },
    UNSAFE_BIG_ENDIAN {
      @Override
      public long getLongLittleEndian(byte[] array, int offset) {
        long bigEndian = theUnsafe.getLong(array, (long) offset + BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET);
        // The hardware is big-endian, so we need to reverse the order of the bytes.
        return Long.reverseBytes(bigEndian);
      }

      @Override
      public void putLongLittleEndian(byte[] array, int offset, long value) {
        // Reverse the order of the bytes before storing, since we're on big-endian hardware.
        long littleEndianValue = Long.reverseBytes(value);
        theUnsafe.putLong(array, (long) offset + BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET, littleEndianValue);
      }
    };

    // Provides load and store operations that use native instructions to get better performance.
    private static final Unsafe theUnsafe;

    // The offset to the first element in a byte array.
    private static final int BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET;

    /**
     * Returns a sun.misc.Unsafe. Suitable for use in a 3rd party package. Replace with a simple
     * call to Unsafe.getUnsafe when integrating into a jdk.
     *
     * @return a sun.misc.Unsafe instance if successful
     */
    private static sun.misc.Unsafe getUnsafe() {
      try {
        return sun.misc.Unsafe.getUnsafe();
      } catch (SecurityException tryReflectionInstead) {
        // We'll try reflection instead.
      }
      try {
        return java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(
            new java.security.PrivilegedExceptionAction<sun.misc.Unsafe>() {
              @Override
              public sun.misc.Unsafe run() throws Exception {
                Class<sun.misc.Unsafe> k = sun.misc.Unsafe.class;
                for (java.lang.reflect.Field f : k.getDeclaredFields()) {
                  f.setAccessible(true);
                  Object x = f.get(null);
                  if (k.isInstance(x)) {
                    return k.cast(x);
                  }
                }
                throw new NoSuchFieldError("the Unsafe");
              }
            });
      } catch (java.security.PrivilegedActionException e) {
        throw new RuntimeException("Could not initialize intrinsics", e.getCause());
      }
    }

    static {
      theUnsafe = getUnsafe();
      BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET = theUnsafe.arrayBaseOffset(byte[].class);

      // sanity check - this should never fail
      if (theUnsafe.arrayIndexScale(byte[].class) != 1) {
        throw new AssertionError();
      }
    }
  }

  /**
   * Fallback implementation for when Unsafe is not available in our current environment.
   */
  private enum JavaLittleEndianBytes implements LittleEndianBytes {
    INSTANCE {
      @Override
      public long getLongLittleEndian(byte[] source, int offset) {
        return Longs.fromBytes(
            source[offset + 7],
            source[offset + 6],
            source[offset + 5],
            source[offset + 4],
            source[offset + 3],
            source[offset + 2],
            source[offset + 1],
            source[offset]);
      }

      @Override
      public void putLongLittleEndian(byte[] sink, int offset, long value) {
        long mask = 0xFFL;
        for (int i = 0; i < 8; mask <<= 8, i++) {
          sink[offset + i] = (byte) ((value & mask) >> (i * 8));
        }
      }
    };
  }

  static {
    LittleEndianBytes theGetter = JavaLittleEndianBytes.INSTANCE;
    try {
      /*
        UnsafeByteArray uses Unsafe.getLong() in an unsupported way, which is known to cause crashes
        on 32-bit Android (ARMv7 with ART). Ideally, we shouldn't use Unsafe.getLong() at all, but
        the performance benefit on x86_64 is too great to ignore, so as a compromise, we enable the
        optimization only on platforms that we specifically know to work.

        In the future, the use of Unsafe.getLong() should be replaced by ByteBuffer.getLong(), which
        will have an efficient native implementation in JDK 9.

      */
      final String arch = System.getProperty("os.arch");
      if ("amd64".equals(arch) || "aarch64".equals(arch)) {
        theGetter =
            ByteOrder.nativeOrder().equals(ByteOrder.LITTLE_ENDIAN)
                ? UnsafeByteArray.UNSAFE_LITTLE_ENDIAN
                : UnsafeByteArray.UNSAFE_BIG_ENDIAN;
      }
    } catch (Throwable t) {
      // ensure we really catch *everything*
    }
    byteArray = theGetter;
  }

  /** Deter instantiation of this class. */
  private LittleEndianByteArray() {}
}