/*
 * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
 * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
 * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
 * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
 * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
 * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */
package com.alipay.sofa.jraft.core;

import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Collection;
import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.LinkedHashSet;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Set;
import java.util.concurrent.CopyOnWriteArrayList;
import java.util.concurrent.CountDownLatch;
import java.util.concurrent.ScheduledFuture;
import java.util.concurrent.ThreadLocalRandom;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicInteger;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.Lock;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.ReadWriteLock;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.ReentrantReadWriteLock;

import org.apache.commons.lang.StringUtils;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.Closure;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.FSMCaller;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.JRaftServiceFactory;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.JRaftUtils;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.Node;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.NodeManager;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.ReadOnlyService;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.ReplicatorGroup;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.Status;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.closure.CatchUpClosure;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.closure.ClosureQueue;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.closure.ClosureQueueImpl;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.closure.ReadIndexClosure;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.closure.SynchronizedClosure;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.conf.Configuration;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.conf.ConfigurationEntry;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.conf.ConfigurationManager;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.entity.Ballot;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.entity.EnumOutter;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.entity.LeaderChangeContext;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.entity.LogEntry;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.entity.LogId;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.entity.NodeId;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.entity.PeerId;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.entity.RaftOutter;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.entity.Task;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.entity.UserLog;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.error.LogIndexOutOfBoundsException;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.error.LogNotFoundException;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.error.RaftError;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.error.RaftException;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.option.BallotBoxOptions;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.option.BootstrapOptions;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.option.FSMCallerOptions;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.option.LogManagerOptions;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.option.NodeOptions;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.option.RaftMetaStorageOptions;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.option.RaftOptions;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.option.ReadOnlyOption;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.option.ReadOnlyServiceOptions;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.option.ReplicatorGroupOptions;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.option.SnapshotExecutorOptions;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.RaftClientService;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.RaftServerService;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.RpcRequestClosure;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.RpcRequests.AppendEntriesRequest;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.RpcRequests.AppendEntriesResponse;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.RpcRequests.InstallSnapshotRequest;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.RpcRequests.InstallSnapshotResponse;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.RpcRequests.ReadIndexRequest;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.RpcRequests.ReadIndexResponse;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.RpcRequests.RequestVoteRequest;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.RpcRequests.RequestVoteResponse;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.RpcRequests.TimeoutNowRequest;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.RpcRequests.TimeoutNowResponse;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.RpcResponseClosure;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.RpcResponseClosureAdapter;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.rpc.impl.core.DefaultRaftClientService;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.storage.LogManager;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.storage.LogStorage;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.storage.RaftMetaStorage;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.storage.SnapshotExecutor;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.storage.impl.LogManagerImpl;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.storage.snapshot.SnapshotExecutorImpl;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.Describer;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.DisruptorBuilder;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.DisruptorMetricSet;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.JRaftServiceLoader;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.JRaftSignalHandler;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.LogExceptionHandler;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.NamedThreadFactory;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.OnlyForTest;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.Platform;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.RepeatedTimer;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.Requires;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.RpcFactoryHelper;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.SignalHelper;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.ThreadHelper;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.ThreadId;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.Utils;
import com.alipay.sofa.jraft.util.timer.RaftTimerFactory;
import com.google.protobuf.Message;
import com.lmax.disruptor.BlockingWaitStrategy;
import com.lmax.disruptor.EventFactory;
import com.lmax.disruptor.EventHandler;
import com.lmax.disruptor.EventTranslator;
import com.lmax.disruptor.RingBuffer;
import com.lmax.disruptor.dsl.Disruptor;
import com.lmax.disruptor.dsl.ProducerType;

/**
 * The raft replica node implementation.
 *
 * @author boyan ([email protected])
 *
 * 2018-Apr-03 4:26:51 PM
 */
public class NodeImpl implements Node, RaftServerService {

    private static final Logger                                            LOG                      = LoggerFactory
                                                                                                        .getLogger(NodeImpl.class);

    static {
        try {
            if (SignalHelper.supportSignal()) {
                // TODO support windows signal
                if (!Platform.isWindows()) {
                    final List<JRaftSignalHandler> handlers = JRaftServiceLoader.load(JRaftSignalHandler.class) //
                        .sort();
                    SignalHelper.addSignal(SignalHelper.SIG_USR2, handlers);
                }
            }
        } catch (final Throwable t) {
            LOG.error("Fail to add signal.", t);
        }
    }

    public final static RaftTimerFactory                                   TIMER_FACTORY            = JRaftUtils
                                                                                                        .raftTimerFactory();

    // Max retry times when applying tasks.
    private static final int                                               MAX_APPLY_RETRY_TIMES    = 3;

    public static final AtomicInteger                                      GLOBAL_NUM_NODES         = new AtomicInteger(
                                                                                                        0);

    /** Internal states */
    private final ReadWriteLock                                            readWriteLock            = new ReentrantReadWriteLock();
    protected final Lock                                                   writeLock                = this.readWriteLock
                                                                                                        .writeLock();
    protected final Lock                                                   readLock                 = this.readWriteLock
                                                                                                        .readLock();
    private volatile State                                                 state;
    private volatile CountDownLatch                                        shutdownLatch;
    private long                                                           currTerm;
    private volatile long                                                  lastLeaderTimestamp;
    private PeerId                                                         leaderId                 = new PeerId();
    private PeerId                                                         votedId;
    private final Ballot                                                   voteCtx                  = new Ballot();
    private final Ballot                                                   prevVoteCtx              = new Ballot();
    private ConfigurationEntry                                             conf;
    private StopTransferArg                                                stopTransferArg;
    /** Raft group and node options and identifier */
    private final String                                                   groupId;
    private NodeOptions                                                    options;
    private RaftOptions                                                    raftOptions;
    private final PeerId                                                   serverId;
    /** Other services */
    private final ConfigurationCtx                                         confCtx;
    private LogStorage                                                     logStorage;
    private RaftMetaStorage                                                metaStorage;
    private ClosureQueue                                                   closureQueue;
    private ConfigurationManager                                           configManager;
    private LogManager                                                     logManager;
    private FSMCaller                                                      fsmCaller;
    private BallotBox                                                      ballotBox;
    private SnapshotExecutor                                               snapshotExecutor;
    private ReplicatorGroup                                                replicatorGroup;
    private final List<Closure>                                            shutdownContinuations    = new ArrayList<>();
    private RaftClientService                                              rpcService;
    private ReadOnlyService                                                readOnlyService;
    /** Timers */
    private Scheduler                                                      timerManager;
    private RepeatedTimer                                                  electionTimer;
    private RepeatedTimer                                                  voteTimer;
    private RepeatedTimer                                                  stepDownTimer;
    private RepeatedTimer                                                  snapshotTimer;
    private ScheduledFuture<?>                                             transferTimer;
    private ThreadId                                                       wakingCandidate;
    /** Disruptor to run node service */
    private Disruptor<LogEntryAndClosure>                                  applyDisruptor;
    private RingBuffer<LogEntryAndClosure>                                 applyQueue;

    /** Metrics*/
    private NodeMetrics                                                    metrics;

    private NodeId                                                         nodeId;
    private JRaftServiceFactory                                            serviceFactory;

    /** ReplicatorStateListeners */
    private final CopyOnWriteArrayList<Replicator.ReplicatorStateListener> replicatorStateListeners = new CopyOnWriteArrayList<>();
    /** Node's target leader election priority value */
    private volatile int                                                   targetPriority;
    /** The number of elections time out for current node */
    private volatile int                                                   electionTimeoutCounter;

    /**
     * Node service event.
     *
     * @author boyan ([email protected])
     *
     * 2018-Apr-03 4:29:55 PM
     */
    private static class LogEntryAndClosure {
        LogEntry       entry;
        Closure        done;
        long           expectedTerm;
        CountDownLatch shutdownLatch;

        public void reset() {
            this.entry = null;
            this.done = null;
            this.expectedTerm = 0;
            this.shutdownLatch = null;
        }
    }

    private static class LogEntryAndClosureFactory implements EventFactory<LogEntryAndClosure> {

        @Override
        public LogEntryAndClosure newInstance() {
            return new LogEntryAndClosure();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Event handler.
     *
     * @author boyan ([email protected])
     *
     * 2018-Apr-03 4:30:07 PM
     */
    private class LogEntryAndClosureHandler implements EventHandler<LogEntryAndClosure> {
        // task list for batch
        private final List<LogEntryAndClosure> tasks = new ArrayList<>(NodeImpl.this.raftOptions.getApplyBatch());

        @Override
        public void onEvent(final LogEntryAndClosure event, final long sequence, final boolean endOfBatch)
                                                                                                          throws Exception {
            if (event.shutdownLatch != null) {
                if (!this.tasks.isEmpty()) {
                    executeApplyingTasks(this.tasks);
                    this.tasks.clear();
                }
                final int num = GLOBAL_NUM_NODES.decrementAndGet();
                LOG.info("The number of active nodes decrement to {}.", num);
                event.shutdownLatch.countDown();
                return;
            }

            this.tasks.add(event);
            if (this.tasks.size() >= NodeImpl.this.raftOptions.getApplyBatch() || endOfBatch) {
                executeApplyingTasks(this.tasks);
                this.tasks.clear();
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Configuration commit context.
     *
     * @author boyan ([email protected])
     *
     * 2018-Apr-03 4:29:38 PM
     */
    private static class ConfigurationCtx {
        enum Stage {
            STAGE_NONE, // none stage
            STAGE_CATCHING_UP, // the node is catching-up
            STAGE_JOINT, // joint stage
            STAGE_STABLE // stable stage
        }

        final NodeImpl node;
        Stage          stage;
        // Peers change times
        int            nchanges;
        long           version;
        // peers
        List<PeerId>   newPeers    = new ArrayList<>();
        List<PeerId>   oldPeers    = new ArrayList<>();
        List<PeerId>   addingPeers = new ArrayList<>();
        // learners
        List<PeerId>   newLearners = new ArrayList<>();
        List<PeerId>   oldLearners = new ArrayList<>();
        Closure        done;

        public ConfigurationCtx(final NodeImpl node) {
            super();
            this.node = node;
            this.stage = Stage.STAGE_NONE;
            this.version = 0;
            this.done = null;
        }

        /**
         * Start change configuration.
         */
        void start(final Configuration oldConf, final Configuration newConf, final Closure done) {
            if (isBusy()) {
                if (done != null) {
                    Utils.runClosureInThread(done, new Status(RaftError.EBUSY, "Already in busy stage."));
                }
                throw new IllegalStateException("Busy stage");
            }
            if (this.done != null) {
                if (done != null) {
                    Utils.runClosureInThread(done, new Status(RaftError.EINVAL, "Already have done closure."));
                }
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("Already have done closure");
            }
            this.done = done;
            this.stage = Stage.STAGE_CATCHING_UP;
            this.oldPeers = oldConf.listPeers();
            this.newPeers = newConf.listPeers();
            this.oldLearners = oldConf.listLearners();
            this.newLearners = newConf.listLearners();
            final Configuration adding = new Configuration();
            final Configuration removing = new Configuration();
            newConf.diff(oldConf, adding, removing);
            this.nchanges = adding.size() + removing.size();

            addNewLearners();
            if (adding.isEmpty()) {
                nextStage();
                return;
            }
            addNewPeers(adding);
        }

        private void addNewPeers(final Configuration adding) {
            this.addingPeers = adding.listPeers();
            LOG.info("Adding peers: {}.", this.addingPeers);
            for (final PeerId newPeer : this.addingPeers) {
                if (!this.node.replicatorGroup.addReplicator(newPeer)) {
                    LOG.error("Node {} start the replicator failed, peer={}.", this.node.getNodeId(), newPeer);
                    onCaughtUp(this.version, newPeer, false);
                    return;
                }
                final OnCaughtUp caughtUp = new OnCaughtUp(this.node, this.node.currTerm, newPeer, this.version);
                final long dueTime = Utils.nowMs() + this.node.options.getElectionTimeoutMs();
                if (!this.node.replicatorGroup.waitCaughtUp(newPeer, this.node.options.getCatchupMargin(), dueTime,
                    caughtUp)) {
                    LOG.error("Node {} waitCaughtUp, peer={}.", this.node.getNodeId(), newPeer);
                    onCaughtUp(this.version, newPeer, false);
                    return;
                }
            }
        }

        private void addNewLearners() {
            final Set<PeerId> addingLearners = new HashSet<>(this.newLearners);
            addingLearners.removeAll(this.oldLearners);
            LOG.info("Adding learners: {}.", this.addingPeers);
            for (final PeerId newLearner : addingLearners) {
                if (!this.node.replicatorGroup.addReplicator(newLearner, ReplicatorType.Learner)) {
                    LOG.error("Node {} start the learner replicator failed, peer={}.", this.node.getNodeId(),
                        newLearner);
                }
            }
        }

        void onCaughtUp(final long version, final PeerId peer, final boolean success) {
            if (version != this.version) {
                LOG.warn("Ignore onCaughtUp message, mismatch configuration context version, expect {}, but is {}.",
                    this.version, version);
                return;
            }
            Requires.requireTrue(this.stage == Stage.STAGE_CATCHING_UP, "Stage is not in STAGE_CATCHING_UP");
            if (success) {
                this.addingPeers.remove(peer);
                if (this.addingPeers.isEmpty()) {
                    nextStage();
                    return;
                }
                return;
            }
            LOG.warn("Node {} fail to catch up peer {} when trying to change peers from {} to {}.",
                this.node.getNodeId(), peer, this.oldPeers, this.newPeers);
            reset(new Status(RaftError.ECATCHUP, "Peer %s failed to catch up.", peer));
        }

        void reset() {
            reset(null);
        }

        void reset(final Status st) {
            if (st != null && st.isOk()) {
                this.node.stopReplicator(this.newPeers, this.oldPeers);
                this.node.stopReplicator(this.newLearners, this.oldLearners);
            } else {
                this.node.stopReplicator(this.oldPeers, this.newPeers);
                this.node.stopReplicator(this.oldLearners, this.newLearners);
            }
            clearPeers();
            clearLearners();

            this.version++;
            this.stage = Stage.STAGE_NONE;
            this.nchanges = 0;
            if (this.done != null) {
                Utils.runClosureInThread(this.done, st != null ? st : new Status(RaftError.EPERM,
                    "Leader stepped down."));
                this.done = null;
            }
        }

        private void clearLearners() {
            this.newLearners.clear();
            this.oldLearners.clear();
        }

        private void clearPeers() {
            this.newPeers.clear();
            this.oldPeers.clear();
            this.addingPeers.clear();
        }

        /**
         * Invoked when this node becomes the leader, write a configuration change log as the first log.
         */
        void flush(final Configuration conf, final Configuration oldConf) {
            Requires.requireTrue(!isBusy(), "Flush when busy");
            this.newPeers = conf.listPeers();
            this.newLearners = conf.listLearners();
            if (oldConf == null || oldConf.isEmpty()) {
                this.stage = Stage.STAGE_STABLE;
                this.oldPeers = this.newPeers;
                this.oldLearners = this.newLearners;
            } else {
                this.stage = Stage.STAGE_JOINT;
                this.oldPeers = oldConf.listPeers();
                this.oldLearners = oldConf.listLearners();
            }
            this.node.unsafeApplyConfiguration(conf, oldConf == null || oldConf.isEmpty() ? null : oldConf, true);
        }

        void nextStage() {
            Requires.requireTrue(isBusy(), "Not in busy stage");
            switch (this.stage) {
                case STAGE_CATCHING_UP:
                    if (this.nchanges > 1) {
                        this.stage = Stage.STAGE_JOINT;
                        this.node.unsafeApplyConfiguration(new Configuration(this.newPeers, this.newLearners),
                            new Configuration(this.oldPeers), false);
                        return;
                    }
                    // Skip joint consensus since only one peers has been changed here. Make
                    // it a one-stage change to be compatible with the legacy
                    // implementation.
                case STAGE_JOINT:
                    this.stage = Stage.STAGE_STABLE;
                    this.node.unsafeApplyConfiguration(new Configuration(this.newPeers, this.newLearners), null, false);
                    break;
                case STAGE_STABLE:
                    final boolean shouldStepDown = !this.newPeers.contains(this.node.serverId);
                    reset(new Status());
                    if (shouldStepDown) {
                        this.node.stepDown(this.node.currTerm, true, new Status(RaftError.ELEADERREMOVED,
                            "This node was removed."));
                    }
                    break;
                case STAGE_NONE:
                    // noinspection ConstantConditions
                    Requires.requireTrue(false, "Can't reach here");
                    break;
            }
        }

        boolean isBusy() {
            return this.stage != Stage.STAGE_NONE;
        }
    }

    public NodeImpl() {
        this(null, null);
    }

    public NodeImpl(final String groupId, final PeerId serverId) {
        super();
        if (groupId != null) {
            Utils.verifyGroupId(groupId);
        }
        this.groupId = groupId;
        this.serverId = serverId != null ? serverId.copy() : null;
        this.state = State.STATE_UNINITIALIZED;
        this.currTerm = 0;
        updateLastLeaderTimestamp(Utils.monotonicMs());
        this.confCtx = new ConfigurationCtx(this);
        this.wakingCandidate = null;
        final int num = GLOBAL_NUM_NODES.incrementAndGet();
        LOG.info("The number of active nodes increment to {}.", num);
    }

    private boolean initSnapshotStorage() {
        if (StringUtils.isEmpty(this.options.getSnapshotUri())) {
            LOG.warn("Do not set snapshot uri, ignore initSnapshotStorage.");
            return true;
        }
        this.snapshotExecutor = new SnapshotExecutorImpl();
        final SnapshotExecutorOptions opts = new SnapshotExecutorOptions();
        opts.setUri(this.options.getSnapshotUri());
        opts.setFsmCaller(this.fsmCaller);
        opts.setNode(this);
        opts.setLogManager(this.logManager);
        opts.setAddr(this.serverId != null ? this.serverId.getEndpoint() : null);
        opts.setInitTerm(this.currTerm);
        opts.setFilterBeforeCopyRemote(this.options.isFilterBeforeCopyRemote());
        // get snapshot throttle
        opts.setSnapshotThrottle(this.options.getSnapshotThrottle());
        return this.snapshotExecutor.init(opts);
    }

    private boolean initLogStorage() {
        Requires.requireNonNull(this.fsmCaller, "Null fsm caller");
        this.logStorage = this.serviceFactory.createLogStorage(this.options.getLogUri(), this.raftOptions);
        this.logManager = new LogManagerImpl();
        final LogManagerOptions opts = new LogManagerOptions();
        opts.setLogEntryCodecFactory(this.serviceFactory.createLogEntryCodecFactory());
        opts.setLogStorage(this.logStorage);
        opts.setConfigurationManager(this.configManager);
        opts.setFsmCaller(this.fsmCaller);
        opts.setNodeMetrics(this.metrics);
        opts.setDisruptorBufferSize(this.raftOptions.getDisruptorBufferSize());
        opts.setRaftOptions(this.raftOptions);
        return this.logManager.init(opts);
    }

    private boolean initMetaStorage() {
        this.metaStorage = this.serviceFactory.createRaftMetaStorage(this.options.getRaftMetaUri(), this.raftOptions);
        RaftMetaStorageOptions opts = new RaftMetaStorageOptions();
        opts.setNode(this);
        if (!this.metaStorage.init(opts)) {
            LOG.error("Node {} init meta storage failed, uri={}.", this.serverId, this.options.getRaftMetaUri());
            return false;
        }
        this.currTerm = this.metaStorage.getTerm();
        this.votedId = this.metaStorage.getVotedFor().copy();
        return true;
    }

    private void handleSnapshotTimeout() {
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            if (!this.state.isActive()) {
                return;
            }
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
        // do_snapshot in another thread to avoid blocking the timer thread.
        Utils.runInThread(() -> doSnapshot(null));
    }

    private void handleElectionTimeout() {
        boolean doUnlock = true;
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            if (this.state != State.STATE_FOLLOWER) {
                return;
            }
            if (isCurrentLeaderValid()) {
                return;
            }
            resetLeaderId(PeerId.emptyPeer(), new Status(RaftError.ERAFTTIMEDOUT, "Lost connection from leader %s.",
                this.leaderId));

            // Judge whether to launch a election.
            if (!allowLaunchElection()) {
                return;
            }

            doUnlock = false;
            preVote();

        } finally {
            if (doUnlock) {
                this.writeLock.unlock();
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Whether to allow for launching election or not by comparing node's priority with target
     * priority. And at the same time, if next leader is not elected until next election
     * timeout, it decays its local target priority exponentially.
     *
     * @return Whether current node will launch election or not.
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("NonAtomicOperationOnVolatileField")
    private boolean allowLaunchElection() {

        // Priority 0 is a special value so that a node will never participate in election.
        if (this.serverId.isPriorityNotElected()) {
            return false;
        }

        // If this nodes disable priority election, then it can make a election.
        if (this.serverId.isPriorityDisabled()) {
            return true;
        }

        // If current node's priority < target_priority, it does not initiate leader,
        // election and waits for the next election timeout.
        if (this.serverId.getPriority() < this.targetPriority) {
            this.electionTimeoutCounter++;

            // If next leader is not elected until next election timeout, it
            // decays its local target priority exponentially.
            if (this.electionTimeoutCounter > 1) {
                decayTargetPriority();
                this.electionTimeoutCounter = 0;
            }

            if (this.electionTimeoutCounter == 1) {
                return false;
            }
        }

        return this.serverId.getPriority() >= this.targetPriority;
    }

    /**
     * Decay targetPriority value based on gap value.
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("NonAtomicOperationOnVolatileField")
    private void decayTargetPriority() {
        // Default Gap value should be bigger than 10.
        final int decayPriorityGap = Math.max(this.options.getDecayPriorityGap(), 10);
        final int gap = Math.max(decayPriorityGap, (this.targetPriority / 5));

        final int prevTargetPriority = this.targetPriority;
        this.targetPriority = Math.max(ElectionPriority.MinValue, (this.targetPriority - gap));
        LOG.info("Node {} priority decay, from: {}, to: {}.", getNodeId(), prevTargetPriority, this.targetPriority);
    }

    /**
     * Check and set configuration for node.At the same time, if configuration is changed,
     * then compute and update the target priority value.
     *
     * @param inLock whether the writeLock has already been locked in other place.
     *
     */
    private void checkAndSetConfiguration(final boolean inLock) {
        if (!inLock) {
            this.writeLock.lock();
        }
        try {
            final ConfigurationEntry prevConf = this.conf;
            this.conf = this.logManager.checkAndSetConfiguration(prevConf);

            if (this.conf != prevConf) {
                // Update target priority value
                final int prevTargetPriority = this.targetPriority;
                this.targetPriority = getMaxPriorityOfNodes(this.conf.getConf().getPeers());
                if (prevTargetPriority != this.targetPriority) {
                    LOG.info("Node {} target priority value has changed from: {}, to: {}.", getNodeId(),
                        prevTargetPriority, this.targetPriority);
                }
                this.electionTimeoutCounter = 0;
            }
        } finally {
            if (!inLock) {
                this.writeLock.unlock();
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Get max priority value for all nodes in the same Raft group, and update current node's target priority value.
     *
     * @param peerIds peer nodes in the same Raft group
     *
     */
    private int getMaxPriorityOfNodes(final List<PeerId> peerIds) {
        Requires.requireNonNull(peerIds, "Null peer list");

        int maxPriority = Integer.MIN_VALUE;
        for (final PeerId peerId : peerIds) {
            final int priorityVal = peerId.getPriority();
            maxPriority = Math.max(priorityVal, maxPriority);
        }

        return maxPriority;
    }

    private boolean initFSMCaller(final LogId bootstrapId) {
        if (this.fsmCaller == null) {
            LOG.error("Fail to init fsm caller, null instance, bootstrapId={}.", bootstrapId);
            return false;
        }
        this.closureQueue = new ClosureQueueImpl();
        final FSMCallerOptions opts = new FSMCallerOptions();
        opts.setAfterShutdown(status -> afterShutdown());
        opts.setLogManager(this.logManager);
        opts.setFsm(this.options.getFsm());
        opts.setClosureQueue(this.closureQueue);
        opts.setNode(this);
        opts.setBootstrapId(bootstrapId);
        opts.setDisruptorBufferSize(this.raftOptions.getDisruptorBufferSize());
        return this.fsmCaller.init(opts);
    }

    private static class BootstrapStableClosure extends LogManager.StableClosure {

        private final SynchronizedClosure done = new SynchronizedClosure();

        public BootstrapStableClosure() {
            super(null);
        }

        public Status await() throws InterruptedException {
            return this.done.await();
        }

        @Override
        public void run(final Status status) {
            this.done.run(status);
        }
    }

    public boolean bootstrap(final BootstrapOptions opts) throws InterruptedException {
        if (opts.getLastLogIndex() > 0 && (opts.getGroupConf().isEmpty() || opts.getFsm() == null)) {
            LOG.error("Invalid arguments for bootstrap, groupConf={}, fsm={}, lastLogIndex={}.", opts.getGroupConf(),
                opts.getFsm(), opts.getLastLogIndex());
            return false;
        }
        if (opts.getGroupConf().isEmpty()) {
            LOG.error("Bootstrapping an empty node makes no sense.");
            return false;
        }
        Requires.requireNonNull(opts.getServiceFactory(), "Null jraft service factory");
        this.serviceFactory = opts.getServiceFactory();
        // Term is not an option since changing it is very dangerous
        final long bootstrapLogTerm = opts.getLastLogIndex() > 0 ? 1 : 0;
        final LogId bootstrapId = new LogId(opts.getLastLogIndex(), bootstrapLogTerm);
        this.options = new NodeOptions();
        this.raftOptions = this.options.getRaftOptions();
        this.metrics = new NodeMetrics(opts.isEnableMetrics());
        this.options.setFsm(opts.getFsm());
        this.options.setLogUri(opts.getLogUri());
        this.options.setRaftMetaUri(opts.getRaftMetaUri());
        this.options.setSnapshotUri(opts.getSnapshotUri());

        this.configManager = new ConfigurationManager();
        // Create fsmCaller at first as logManager needs it to report error
        this.fsmCaller = new FSMCallerImpl();

        if (!initLogStorage()) {
            LOG.error("Fail to init log storage.");
            return false;
        }
        if (!initMetaStorage()) {
            LOG.error("Fail to init meta storage.");
            return false;
        }
        if (this.currTerm == 0) {
            this.currTerm = 1;
            if (!this.metaStorage.setTermAndVotedFor(1, new PeerId())) {
                LOG.error("Fail to set term.");
                return false;
            }
        }

        if (opts.getFsm() != null && !initFSMCaller(bootstrapId)) {
            LOG.error("Fail to init fsm caller.");
            return false;
        }

        final LogEntry entry = new LogEntry(EnumOutter.EntryType.ENTRY_TYPE_CONFIGURATION);
        entry.getId().setTerm(this.currTerm);
        entry.setPeers(opts.getGroupConf().listPeers());
        entry.setLearners(opts.getGroupConf().listLearners());

        final List<LogEntry> entries = new ArrayList<>();
        entries.add(entry);

        final BootstrapStableClosure bootstrapDone = new BootstrapStableClosure();
        this.logManager.appendEntries(entries, bootstrapDone);
        if (!bootstrapDone.await().isOk()) {
            LOG.error("Fail to append configuration.");
            return false;
        }

        if (opts.getLastLogIndex() > 0) {
            if (!initSnapshotStorage()) {
                LOG.error("Fail to init snapshot storage.");
                return false;
            }
            final SynchronizedClosure snapshotDone = new SynchronizedClosure();
            this.snapshotExecutor.doSnapshot(snapshotDone);
            if (!snapshotDone.await().isOk()) {
                LOG.error("Fail to save snapshot, status={}.", snapshotDone.getStatus());
                return false;
            }
        }

        if (this.logManager.getFirstLogIndex() != opts.getLastLogIndex() + 1) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("First and last log index mismatch");
        }
        if (opts.getLastLogIndex() > 0) {
            if (this.logManager.getLastLogIndex() != opts.getLastLogIndex()) {
                throw new IllegalStateException("Last log index mismatch");
            }
        } else {
            if (this.logManager.getLastLogIndex() != opts.getLastLogIndex() + 1) {
                throw new IllegalStateException("Last log index mismatch");
            }
        }

        return true;
    }

    private int heartbeatTimeout(final int electionTimeout) {
        return Math.max(electionTimeout / this.raftOptions.getElectionHeartbeatFactor(), 10);
    }

    private int randomTimeout(final int timeoutMs) {
        return ThreadLocalRandom.current().nextInt(timeoutMs, timeoutMs + this.raftOptions.getMaxElectionDelayMs());
    }

    @Override
    public boolean init(final NodeOptions opts) {
        Requires.requireNonNull(opts, "Null node options");
        Requires.requireNonNull(opts.getRaftOptions(), "Null raft options");
        Requires.requireNonNull(opts.getServiceFactory(), "Null jraft service factory");
        this.serviceFactory = opts.getServiceFactory();
        this.options = opts;
        this.raftOptions = opts.getRaftOptions();
        this.metrics = new NodeMetrics(opts.isEnableMetrics());
        this.serverId.setPriority(opts.getElectionPriority());
        this.electionTimeoutCounter = 0;

        if (this.serverId.getIp().equals(Utils.IP_ANY)) {
            LOG.error("Node can't started from IP_ANY.");
            return false;
        }

        if (!NodeManager.getInstance().serverExists(this.serverId.getEndpoint())) {
            LOG.error("No RPC server attached to, did you forget to call addService?");
            return false;
        }

        this.timerManager = TIMER_FACTORY.getRaftScheduler(this.options.isSharedTimerPool(),
            this.options.getTimerPoolSize(), "JRaft-Node-ScheduleThreadPool");

        // Init timers
        final String suffix = getNodeId().toString();
        String name = "JRaft-VoteTimer-" + suffix;
        this.voteTimer = new RepeatedTimer(name, this.options.getElectionTimeoutMs(), TIMER_FACTORY.getVoteTimer(
            this.options.isSharedVoteTimer(), name)) {

            @Override
            protected void onTrigger() {
                handleVoteTimeout();
            }

            @Override
            protected int adjustTimeout(final int timeoutMs) {
                return randomTimeout(timeoutMs);
            }
        };
        name = "JRaft-ElectionTimer-" + suffix;
        this.electionTimer = new RepeatedTimer(name, this.options.getElectionTimeoutMs(),
            TIMER_FACTORY.getElectionTimer(this.options.isSharedElectionTimer(), name)) {

            @Override
            protected void onTrigger() {
                handleElectionTimeout();
            }

            @Override
            protected int adjustTimeout(final int timeoutMs) {
                return randomTimeout(timeoutMs);
            }
        };
        name = "JRaft-StepDownTimer-" + suffix;
        this.stepDownTimer = new RepeatedTimer(name, this.options.getElectionTimeoutMs() >> 1,
            TIMER_FACTORY.getStepDownTimer(this.options.isSharedStepDownTimer(), name)) {

            @Override
            protected void onTrigger() {
                handleStepDownTimeout();
            }
        };
        name = "JRaft-SnapshotTimer-" + suffix;
        this.snapshotTimer = new RepeatedTimer(name, this.options.getSnapshotIntervalSecs() * 1000,
            TIMER_FACTORY.getSnapshotTimer(this.options.isSharedSnapshotTimer(), name)) {

            private volatile boolean firstSchedule = true;

            @Override
            protected void onTrigger() {
                handleSnapshotTimeout();
            }

            @Override
            protected int adjustTimeout(final int timeoutMs) {
                if (!this.firstSchedule) {
                    return timeoutMs;
                }

                // Randomize the first snapshot trigger timeout
                this.firstSchedule = false;
                if (timeoutMs > 0) {
                    int half = timeoutMs / 2;
                    return half + ThreadLocalRandom.current().nextInt(half);
                } else {
                    return timeoutMs;
                }
            }
        };

        this.configManager = new ConfigurationManager();

        this.applyDisruptor = DisruptorBuilder.<LogEntryAndClosure> newInstance() //
            .setRingBufferSize(this.raftOptions.getDisruptorBufferSize()) //
            .setEventFactory(new LogEntryAndClosureFactory()) //
            .setThreadFactory(new NamedThreadFactory("JRaft-NodeImpl-Disruptor-", true)) //
            .setProducerType(ProducerType.MULTI) //
            .setWaitStrategy(new BlockingWaitStrategy()) //
            .build();
        this.applyDisruptor.handleEventsWith(new LogEntryAndClosureHandler());
        this.applyDisruptor.setDefaultExceptionHandler(new LogExceptionHandler<Object>(getClass().getSimpleName()));
        this.applyQueue = this.applyDisruptor.start();
        if (this.metrics.getMetricRegistry() != null) {
            this.metrics.getMetricRegistry().register("jraft-node-impl-disruptor",
                new DisruptorMetricSet(this.applyQueue));
        }

        this.fsmCaller = new FSMCallerImpl();
        if (!initLogStorage()) {
            LOG.error("Node {} initLogStorage failed.", getNodeId());
            return false;
        }
        if (!initMetaStorage()) {
            LOG.error("Node {} initMetaStorage failed.", getNodeId());
            return false;
        }
        if (!initFSMCaller(new LogId(0, 0))) {
            LOG.error("Node {} initFSMCaller failed.", getNodeId());
            return false;
        }
        this.ballotBox = new BallotBox();
        final BallotBoxOptions ballotBoxOpts = new BallotBoxOptions();
        ballotBoxOpts.setWaiter(this.fsmCaller);
        ballotBoxOpts.setClosureQueue(this.closureQueue);
        if (!this.ballotBox.init(ballotBoxOpts)) {
            LOG.error("Node {} init ballotBox failed.", getNodeId());
            return false;
        }

        if (!initSnapshotStorage()) {
            LOG.error("Node {} initSnapshotStorage failed.", getNodeId());
            return false;
        }

        final Status st = this.logManager.checkConsistency();
        if (!st.isOk()) {
            LOG.error("Node {} is initialized with inconsistent log, status={}.", getNodeId(), st);
            return false;
        }
        this.conf = new ConfigurationEntry();
        this.conf.setId(new LogId());
        // if have log using conf in log, else using conf in options
        if (this.logManager.getLastLogIndex() > 0) {
            checkAndSetConfiguration(false);
        } else {
            this.conf.setConf(this.options.getInitialConf());
            // initially set to max(priority of all nodes)
            this.targetPriority = getMaxPriorityOfNodes(this.conf.getConf().getPeers());
        }

        if (!this.conf.isEmpty()) {
            Requires.requireTrue(this.conf.isValid(), "Invalid conf: %s", this.conf);
        } else {
            LOG.info("Init node {} with empty conf.", this.serverId);
        }

        // TODO RPC service and ReplicatorGroup is in cycle dependent, refactor it
        this.replicatorGroup = new ReplicatorGroupImpl();
        this.rpcService = new DefaultRaftClientService(this.replicatorGroup);
        final ReplicatorGroupOptions rgOpts = new ReplicatorGroupOptions();
        rgOpts.setHeartbeatTimeoutMs(heartbeatTimeout(this.options.getElectionTimeoutMs()));
        rgOpts.setElectionTimeoutMs(this.options.getElectionTimeoutMs());
        rgOpts.setLogManager(this.logManager);
        rgOpts.setBallotBox(this.ballotBox);
        rgOpts.setNode(this);
        rgOpts.setRaftRpcClientService(this.rpcService);
        rgOpts.setSnapshotStorage(this.snapshotExecutor != null ? this.snapshotExecutor.getSnapshotStorage() : null);
        rgOpts.setRaftOptions(this.raftOptions);
        rgOpts.setTimerManager(this.timerManager);

        // Adds metric registry to RPC service.
        this.options.setMetricRegistry(this.metrics.getMetricRegistry());

        if (!this.rpcService.init(this.options)) {
            LOG.error("Fail to init rpc service.");
            return false;
        }
        this.replicatorGroup.init(new NodeId(this.groupId, this.serverId), rgOpts);

        this.readOnlyService = new ReadOnlyServiceImpl();
        final ReadOnlyServiceOptions rosOpts = new ReadOnlyServiceOptions();
        rosOpts.setFsmCaller(this.fsmCaller);
        rosOpts.setNode(this);
        rosOpts.setRaftOptions(this.raftOptions);

        if (!this.readOnlyService.init(rosOpts)) {
            LOG.error("Fail to init readOnlyService.");
            return false;
        }

        // set state to follower
        this.state = State.STATE_FOLLOWER;

        if (LOG.isInfoEnabled()) {
            LOG.info("Node {} init, term={}, lastLogId={}, conf={}, oldConf={}.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm,
                this.logManager.getLastLogId(false), this.conf.getConf(), this.conf.getOldConf());
        }

        if (this.snapshotExecutor != null && this.options.getSnapshotIntervalSecs() > 0) {
            LOG.debug("Node {} start snapshot timer, term={}.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm);
            this.snapshotTimer.start();
        }

        if (!this.conf.isEmpty()) {
            stepDown(this.currTerm, false, new Status());
        }

        if (!NodeManager.getInstance().add(this)) {
            LOG.error("NodeManager add {} failed.", getNodeId());
            return false;
        }

        // Now the raft node is started , have to acquire the writeLock to avoid race
        // conditions
        this.writeLock.lock();
        if (this.conf.isStable() && this.conf.getConf().size() == 1 && this.conf.getConf().contains(this.serverId)) {
            // The group contains only this server which must be the LEADER, trigger
            // the timer immediately.
            electSelf();
        } else {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }

        return true;
    }

    @OnlyForTest
    void tryElectSelf() {
        this.writeLock.lock();
        // unlock in electSelf
        electSelf();
    }

    // should be in writeLock
    private void electSelf() {
        long oldTerm;
        try {
            LOG.info("Node {} start vote and grant vote self, term={}.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm);
            if (!this.conf.contains(this.serverId)) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} can't do electSelf as it is not in {}.", getNodeId(), this.conf);
                return;
            }
            if (this.state == State.STATE_FOLLOWER) {
                LOG.debug("Node {} stop election timer, term={}.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm);
                this.electionTimer.stop();
            }
            resetLeaderId(PeerId.emptyPeer(), new Status(RaftError.ERAFTTIMEDOUT,
                "A follower's leader_id is reset to NULL as it begins to request_vote."));
            this.state = State.STATE_CANDIDATE;
            this.currTerm++;
            this.votedId = this.serverId.copy();
            LOG.debug("Node {} start vote timer, term={} .", getNodeId(), this.currTerm);
            this.voteTimer.start();
            this.voteCtx.init(this.conf.getConf(), this.conf.isStable() ? null : this.conf.getOldConf());
            oldTerm = this.currTerm;
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }

        final LogId lastLogId = this.logManager.getLastLogId(true);

        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            // vote need defense ABA after unlock&writeLock
            if (oldTerm != this.currTerm) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} raise term {} when getLastLogId.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm);
                return;
            }
            for (final PeerId peer : this.conf.listPeers()) {
                if (peer.equals(this.serverId)) {
                    continue;
                }
                if (!this.rpcService.connect(peer.getEndpoint())) {
                    LOG.warn("Node {} channel init failed, address={}.", getNodeId(), peer.getEndpoint());
                    continue;
                }
                final OnRequestVoteRpcDone done = new OnRequestVoteRpcDone(peer, this.currTerm, this);
                done.request = RequestVoteRequest.newBuilder() //
                    .setPreVote(false) // It's not a pre-vote request.
                    .setGroupId(this.groupId) //
                    .setServerId(this.serverId.toString()) //
                    .setPeerId(peer.toString()) //
                    .setTerm(this.currTerm) //
                    .setLastLogIndex(lastLogId.getIndex()) //
                    .setLastLogTerm(lastLogId.getTerm()) //
                    .build();
                this.rpcService.requestVote(peer.getEndpoint(), done.request, done);
            }

            this.metaStorage.setTermAndVotedFor(this.currTerm, this.serverId);
            this.voteCtx.grant(this.serverId);
            if (this.voteCtx.isGranted()) {
                becomeLeader();
            }
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    private void resetLeaderId(final PeerId newLeaderId, final Status status) {
        if (newLeaderId.isEmpty()) {
            if (!this.leaderId.isEmpty() && this.state.compareTo(State.STATE_TRANSFERRING) > 0) {
                this.fsmCaller.onStopFollowing(new LeaderChangeContext(this.leaderId.copy(), this.currTerm, status));
            }
            this.leaderId = PeerId.emptyPeer();
        } else {
            if (this.leaderId == null || this.leaderId.isEmpty()) {
                this.fsmCaller.onStartFollowing(new LeaderChangeContext(newLeaderId, this.currTerm, status));
            }
            this.leaderId = newLeaderId.copy();
        }
    }

    // in writeLock
    private void checkStepDown(final long requestTerm, final PeerId serverId) {
        final Status status = new Status();
        if (requestTerm > this.currTerm) {
            status.setError(RaftError.ENEWLEADER, "Raft node receives message from new leader with higher term.");
            stepDown(requestTerm, false, status);
        } else if (this.state != State.STATE_FOLLOWER) {
            status.setError(RaftError.ENEWLEADER, "Candidate receives message from new leader with the same term.");
            stepDown(requestTerm, false, status);
        } else if (this.leaderId.isEmpty()) {
            status.setError(RaftError.ENEWLEADER, "Follower receives message from new leader with the same term.");
            stepDown(requestTerm, false, status);
        }
        // save current leader
        if (this.leaderId == null || this.leaderId.isEmpty()) {
            resetLeaderId(serverId, status);
        }
    }

    private void becomeLeader() {
        Requires.requireTrue(this.state == State.STATE_CANDIDATE, "Illegal state: " + this.state);
        LOG.info("Node {} become leader of group, term={}, conf={}, oldConf={}.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm,
            this.conf.getConf(), this.conf.getOldConf());
        // cancel candidate vote timer
        stopVoteTimer();
        this.state = State.STATE_LEADER;
        this.leaderId = this.serverId.copy();
        this.replicatorGroup.resetTerm(this.currTerm);
        // Start follower's replicators
        for (final PeerId peer : this.conf.listPeers()) {
            if (peer.equals(this.serverId)) {
                continue;
            }
            LOG.debug("Node {} add a replicator, term={}, peer={}.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm, peer);
            if (!this.replicatorGroup.addReplicator(peer)) {
                LOG.error("Fail to add a replicator, peer={}.", peer);
            }
        }

        // Start learner's replicators
        for (final PeerId peer : this.conf.listLearners()) {
            LOG.debug("Node {} add a learner replicator, term={}, peer={}.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm, peer);
            if (!this.replicatorGroup.addReplicator(peer, ReplicatorType.Learner)) {
                LOG.error("Fail to add a learner replicator, peer={}.", peer);
            }
        }

        // init commit manager
        this.ballotBox.resetPendingIndex(this.logManager.getLastLogIndex() + 1);
        // Register _conf_ctx to reject configuration changing before the first log
        // is committed.
        if (this.confCtx.isBusy()) {
            throw new IllegalStateException();
        }
        this.confCtx.flush(this.conf.getConf(), this.conf.getOldConf());
        this.stepDownTimer.start();
    }

    // should be in writeLock
    private void stepDown(final long term, final boolean wakeupCandidate, final Status status) {
        LOG.debug("Node {} stepDown, term={}, newTerm={}, wakeupCandidate={}.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm, term,
            wakeupCandidate);
        if (!this.state.isActive()) {
            return;
        }
        if (this.state == State.STATE_CANDIDATE) {
            stopVoteTimer();
        } else if (this.state.compareTo(State.STATE_TRANSFERRING) <= 0) {
            stopStepDownTimer();
            this.ballotBox.clearPendingTasks();
            // signal fsm leader stop immediately
            if (this.state == State.STATE_LEADER) {
                onLeaderStop(status);
            }
        }
        // reset leader_id
        resetLeaderId(PeerId.emptyPeer(), status);

        // soft state in memory
        this.state = State.STATE_FOLLOWER;
        this.confCtx.reset();
        updateLastLeaderTimestamp(Utils.monotonicMs());
        if (this.snapshotExecutor != null) {
            this.snapshotExecutor.interruptDownloadingSnapshots(term);
        }

        // meta state
        if (term > this.currTerm) {
            this.currTerm = term;
            this.votedId = PeerId.emptyPeer();
            this.metaStorage.setTermAndVotedFor(term, this.votedId);
        }

        if (wakeupCandidate) {
            this.wakingCandidate = this.replicatorGroup.stopAllAndFindTheNextCandidate(this.conf);
            if (this.wakingCandidate != null) {
                Replicator.sendTimeoutNowAndStop(this.wakingCandidate, this.options.getElectionTimeoutMs());
            }
        } else {
            this.replicatorGroup.stopAll();
        }
        if (this.stopTransferArg != null) {
            if (this.transferTimer != null) {
                this.transferTimer.cancel(true);
            }
            // There is at most one StopTransferTimer at the same term, it's safe to
            // mark stopTransferArg to NULL
            this.stopTransferArg = null;
        }
        // Learner node will not trigger the election timer.
        if (!isLearner()) {
            this.electionTimer.restart();
        } else {
            LOG.info("Node {} is a learner, election timer is not started.", this.nodeId);
        }
    }

    // Should be in readLock
    private boolean isLearner() {
        return this.conf.listLearners().contains(this.serverId);
    }

    private void stopStepDownTimer() {
        if (this.stepDownTimer != null) {
            this.stepDownTimer.stop();
        }
    }

    private void stopVoteTimer() {
        if (this.voteTimer != null) {
            this.voteTimer.stop();
        }
    }

    class LeaderStableClosure extends LogManager.StableClosure {

        public LeaderStableClosure(final List<LogEntry> entries) {
            super(entries);
        }

        @Override
        public void run(final Status status) {
            if (status.isOk()) {
                NodeImpl.this.ballotBox.commitAt(this.firstLogIndex, this.firstLogIndex + this.nEntries - 1,
                    NodeImpl.this.serverId);
            } else {
                LOG.error("Node {} append [{}, {}] failed, status={}.", getNodeId(), this.firstLogIndex,
                    this.firstLogIndex + this.nEntries - 1, status);
            }
        }
    }

    private void executeApplyingTasks(final List<LogEntryAndClosure> tasks) {
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            final int size = tasks.size();
            if (this.state != State.STATE_LEADER) {
                final Status st = new Status();
                if (this.state != State.STATE_TRANSFERRING) {
                    st.setError(RaftError.EPERM, "Is not leader.");
                } else {
                    st.setError(RaftError.EBUSY, "Is transferring leadership.");
                }
                LOG.debug("Node {} can't apply, status={}.", getNodeId(), st);
                final List<LogEntryAndClosure> savedTasks = new ArrayList<>(tasks);
                Utils.runInThread(() -> {
                    for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
                        savedTasks.get(i).done.run(st);
                    }
                });
                return;
            }
            final List<LogEntry> entries = new ArrayList<>(size);
            for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
                final LogEntryAndClosure task = tasks.get(i);
                if (task.expectedTerm != -1 && task.expectedTerm != this.currTerm) {
                    LOG.debug("Node {} can't apply task whose expectedTerm={} doesn't match currTerm={}.", getNodeId(),
                        task.expectedTerm, this.currTerm);
                    if (task.done != null) {
                        final Status st = new Status(RaftError.EPERM, "expected_term=%d doesn't match current_term=%d",
                            task.expectedTerm, this.currTerm);
                        Utils.runClosureInThread(task.done, st);
                    }
                    continue;
                }
                if (!this.ballotBox.appendPendingTask(this.conf.getConf(),
                    this.conf.isStable() ? null : this.conf.getOldConf(), task.done)) {
                    Utils.runClosureInThread(task.done, new Status(RaftError.EINTERNAL, "Fail to append task."));
                    continue;
                }
                // set task entry info before adding to list.
                task.entry.getId().setTerm(this.currTerm);
                task.entry.setType(EnumOutter.EntryType.ENTRY_TYPE_DATA);
                entries.add(task.entry);
            }
            this.logManager.appendEntries(entries, new LeaderStableClosure(entries));
            // update conf.first
            checkAndSetConfiguration(true);
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns the node metrics.
     *
     * @return returns metrics of current node.
     */
    @Override
    public NodeMetrics getNodeMetrics() {
        return this.metrics;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the JRaft service factory for current node.
     * @since 1.2.6
     * @return the service factory
     */
    public JRaftServiceFactory getServiceFactory() {
        return this.serviceFactory;
    }

    @Override
    public void readIndex(final byte[] requestContext, final ReadIndexClosure done) {
        if (this.shutdownLatch != null) {
            Utils.runClosureInThread(done, new Status(RaftError.ENODESHUTDOWN, "Node is shutting down."));
            throw new IllegalStateException("Node is shutting down");
        }
        Requires.requireNonNull(done, "Null closure");
        this.readOnlyService.addRequest(requestContext, done);
    }

    /**
     * ReadIndex response closure
     * @author dennis
     */
    private class ReadIndexHeartbeatResponseClosure extends RpcResponseClosureAdapter<AppendEntriesResponse> {
        final ReadIndexResponse.Builder             respBuilder;
        final RpcResponseClosure<ReadIndexResponse> closure;
        final int                                   quorum;
        final int                                   failPeersThreshold;
        int                                         ackSuccess;
        int                                         ackFailures;
        boolean                                     isDone;

        public ReadIndexHeartbeatResponseClosure(final RpcResponseClosure<ReadIndexResponse> closure,
                                                 final ReadIndexResponse.Builder rb, final int quorum,
                                                 final int peersCount) {
            super();
            this.closure = closure;
            this.respBuilder = rb;
            this.quorum = quorum;
            this.failPeersThreshold = peersCount % 2 == 0 ? (quorum - 1) : quorum;
            this.ackSuccess = 0;
            this.ackFailures = 0;
            this.isDone = false;
        }

        @Override
        public synchronized void run(final Status status) {
            if (this.isDone) {
                return;
            }
            if (status.isOk() && getResponse().getSuccess()) {
                this.ackSuccess++;
            } else {
                this.ackFailures++;
            }
            // Include leader self vote yes.
            if (this.ackSuccess + 1 >= this.quorum) {
                this.respBuilder.setSuccess(true);
                this.closure.setResponse(this.respBuilder.build());
                this.closure.run(Status.OK());
                this.isDone = true;
            } else if (this.ackFailures >= this.failPeersThreshold) {
                this.respBuilder.setSuccess(false);
                this.closure.setResponse(this.respBuilder.build());
                this.closure.run(Status.OK());
                this.isDone = true;
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Handle read index request.
     */
    @Override
    public void handleReadIndexRequest(final ReadIndexRequest request, final RpcResponseClosure<ReadIndexResponse> done) {
        final long startMs = Utils.monotonicMs();
        this.readLock.lock();
        try {
            switch (this.state) {
                case STATE_LEADER:
                    readLeader(request, ReadIndexResponse.newBuilder(), done);
                    break;
                case STATE_FOLLOWER:
                    readFollower(request, done);
                    break;
                case STATE_TRANSFERRING:
                    done.run(new Status(RaftError.EBUSY, "Is transferring leadership."));
                    break;
                default:
                    done.run(new Status(RaftError.EPERM, "Invalid state for readIndex: %s.", this.state));
                    break;
            }
        } finally {
            this.readLock.unlock();
            this.metrics.recordLatency("handle-read-index", Utils.monotonicMs() - startMs);
            this.metrics.recordSize("handle-read-index-entries", request.getEntriesCount());
        }
    }

    private int getQuorum() {
        final Configuration c = this.conf.getConf();
        if (c.isEmpty()) {
            return 0;
        }
        return c.getPeers().size() / 2 + 1;
    }

    private void readFollower(final ReadIndexRequest request, final RpcResponseClosure<ReadIndexResponse> closure) {
        if (this.leaderId == null || this.leaderId.isEmpty()) {
            closure.run(new Status(RaftError.EPERM, "No leader at term %d.", this.currTerm));
            return;
        }
        // send request to leader.
        final ReadIndexRequest newRequest = ReadIndexRequest.newBuilder() //
            .mergeFrom(request) //
            .setPeerId(this.leaderId.toString()) //
            .build();
        this.rpcService.readIndex(this.leaderId.getEndpoint(), newRequest, -1, closure);
    }

    private void readLeader(final ReadIndexRequest request, final ReadIndexResponse.Builder respBuilder,
                            final RpcResponseClosure<ReadIndexResponse> closure) {
        final int quorum = getQuorum();
        if (quorum <= 1) {
            // Only one peer, fast path.
            respBuilder.setSuccess(true) //
                .setIndex(this.ballotBox.getLastCommittedIndex());
            closure.setResponse(respBuilder.build());
            closure.run(Status.OK());
            return;
        }

        final long lastCommittedIndex = this.ballotBox.getLastCommittedIndex();
        if (this.logManager.getTerm(lastCommittedIndex) != this.currTerm) {
            // Reject read only request when this leader has not committed any log entry at its term
            closure
                .run(new Status(
                    RaftError.EAGAIN,
                    "ReadIndex request rejected because leader has not committed any log entry at its term, logIndex=%d, currTerm=%d.",
                    lastCommittedIndex, this.currTerm));
            return;
        }
        respBuilder.setIndex(lastCommittedIndex);

        if (request.getPeerId() != null) {
            // request from follower or learner, check if the follower/learner is in current conf.
            final PeerId peer = new PeerId();
            peer.parse(request.getServerId());
            if (!this.conf.contains(peer) && !this.conf.containsLearner(peer)) {
                closure
                    .run(new Status(RaftError.EPERM, "Peer %s is not in current configuration: %s.", peer, this.conf));
                return;
            }
        }

        ReadOnlyOption readOnlyOpt = this.raftOptions.getReadOnlyOptions();
        if (readOnlyOpt == ReadOnlyOption.ReadOnlyLeaseBased && !isLeaderLeaseValid()) {
            // If leader lease timeout, we must change option to ReadOnlySafe
            readOnlyOpt = ReadOnlyOption.ReadOnlySafe;
        }

        switch (readOnlyOpt) {
            case ReadOnlySafe:
                final List<PeerId> peers = this.conf.getConf().getPeers();
                Requires.requireTrue(peers != null && !peers.isEmpty(), "Empty peers");
                final ReadIndexHeartbeatResponseClosure heartbeatDone = new ReadIndexHeartbeatResponseClosure(closure,
                    respBuilder, quorum, peers.size());
                // Send heartbeat requests to followers
                for (final PeerId peer : peers) {
                    if (peer.equals(this.serverId)) {
                        continue;
                    }
                    this.replicatorGroup.sendHeartbeat(peer, heartbeatDone);
                }
                break;
            case ReadOnlyLeaseBased:
                // Responses to followers and local node.
                respBuilder.setSuccess(true);
                closure.setResponse(respBuilder.build());
                closure.run(Status.OK());
                break;
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void apply(final Task task) {
        if (this.shutdownLatch != null) {
            Utils.runClosureInThread(task.getDone(), new Status(RaftError.ENODESHUTDOWN, "Node is shutting down."));
            throw new IllegalStateException("Node is shutting down");
        }
        Requires.requireNonNull(task, "Null task");

        final LogEntry entry = new LogEntry();
        entry.setData(task.getData());
        int retryTimes = 0;
        try {
            final EventTranslator<LogEntryAndClosure> translator = (event, sequence) -> {
                event.reset();
                event.done = task.getDone();
                event.entry = entry;
                event.expectedTerm = task.getExpectedTerm();
            };
            while (true) {
                if (this.applyQueue.tryPublishEvent(translator)) {
                    break;
                } else {
                    retryTimes++;
                    if (retryTimes > MAX_APPLY_RETRY_TIMES) {
                        Utils.runClosureInThread(task.getDone(),
                            new Status(RaftError.EBUSY, "Node is busy, has too many tasks."));
                        LOG.warn("Node {} applyQueue is overload.", getNodeId());
                        this.metrics.recordTimes("apply-task-overload-times", 1);
                        return;
                    }
                    ThreadHelper.onSpinWait();
                }
            }

        } catch (final Exception e) {
            LOG.error("Fail to apply task.", e);
            Utils.runClosureInThread(task.getDone(), new Status(RaftError.EPERM, "Node is down."));
        }
    }

    @Override
    public Message handlePreVoteRequest(final RequestVoteRequest request) {
        boolean doUnlock = true;
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            if (!this.state.isActive()) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} is not in active state, currTerm={}.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm);
                return RpcFactoryHelper //
                    .responseFactory() //
                    .newResponse(RequestVoteResponse.getDefaultInstance(), RaftError.EINVAL,
                        "Node %s is not in active state, state %s.", getNodeId(), this.state.name());
            }
            final PeerId candidateId = new PeerId();
            if (!candidateId.parse(request.getServerId())) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} received PreVoteRequest from {} serverId bad format.", getNodeId(),
                    request.getServerId());
                return RpcFactoryHelper //
                    .responseFactory() //
                    .newResponse(RequestVoteResponse.getDefaultInstance(), RaftError.EINVAL,
                        "Parse candidateId failed: %s.", request.getServerId());
            }
            boolean granted = false;
            // noinspection ConstantConditions
            do {
                if (this.leaderId != null && !this.leaderId.isEmpty() && isCurrentLeaderValid()) {
                    LOG.info(
                        "Node {} ignore PreVoteRequest from {}, term={}, currTerm={}, because the leader {}'s lease is still valid.",
                        getNodeId(), request.getServerId(), request.getTerm(), this.currTerm, this.leaderId);
                    break;
                }
                if (request.getTerm() < this.currTerm) {
                    LOG.info("Node {} ignore PreVoteRequest from {}, term={}, currTerm={}.", getNodeId(),
                        request.getServerId(), request.getTerm(), this.currTerm);
                    // A follower replicator may not be started when this node become leader, so we must check it.
                    checkReplicator(candidateId);
                    break;
                } else if (request.getTerm() == this.currTerm + 1) {
                    // A follower replicator may not be started when this node become leader, so we must check it.
                    // check replicator state
                    checkReplicator(candidateId);
                }
                doUnlock = false;
                this.writeLock.unlock();

                final LogId lastLogId = this.logManager.getLastLogId(true);

                doUnlock = true;
                this.writeLock.lock();
                final LogId requestLastLogId = new LogId(request.getLastLogIndex(), request.getLastLogTerm());
                granted = requestLastLogId.compareTo(lastLogId) >= 0;

                LOG.info(
                    "Node {} received PreVoteRequest from {}, term={}, currTerm={}, granted={}, requestLastLogId={}, lastLogId={}.",
                    getNodeId(), request.getServerId(), request.getTerm(), this.currTerm, granted, requestLastLogId,
                    lastLogId);
            } while (false);

            return RequestVoteResponse.newBuilder() //
                .setTerm(this.currTerm) //
                .setGranted(granted) //
                .build();
        } finally {
            if (doUnlock) {
                this.writeLock.unlock();
            }
        }
    }

    // in read_lock
    private boolean isLeaderLeaseValid() {
        final long monotonicNowMs = Utils.monotonicMs();
        if (checkLeaderLease(monotonicNowMs)) {
            return true;
        }
        checkDeadNodes0(this.conf.getConf().getPeers(), monotonicNowMs, false, null);
        return checkLeaderLease(monotonicNowMs);
    }

    private boolean checkLeaderLease(final long monotonicNowMs) {
        return monotonicNowMs - this.lastLeaderTimestamp < this.options.getLeaderLeaseTimeoutMs();
    }

    private boolean isCurrentLeaderValid() {
        return Utils.monotonicMs() - this.lastLeaderTimestamp < this.options.getElectionTimeoutMs();
    }

    private void updateLastLeaderTimestamp(final long lastLeaderTimestamp) {
        this.lastLeaderTimestamp = lastLeaderTimestamp;
    }

    private void checkReplicator(final PeerId candidateId) {
        if (this.state == State.STATE_LEADER) {
            this.replicatorGroup.checkReplicator(candidateId, false);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public Message handleRequestVoteRequest(final RequestVoteRequest request) {
        boolean doUnlock = true;
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            if (!this.state.isActive()) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} is not in active state, currTerm={}.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm);
                return RpcFactoryHelper //
                    .responseFactory() //
                    .newResponse(RequestVoteResponse.getDefaultInstance(), RaftError.EINVAL,
                        "Node %s is not in active state, state %s.", getNodeId(), this.state.name());
            }
            final PeerId candidateId = new PeerId();
            if (!candidateId.parse(request.getServerId())) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} received RequestVoteRequest from {} serverId bad format.", getNodeId(),
                    request.getServerId());
                return RpcFactoryHelper //
                    .responseFactory() //
                    .newResponse(RequestVoteResponse.getDefaultInstance(), RaftError.EINVAL,
                        "Parse candidateId failed: %s.", request.getServerId());
            }

            // noinspection ConstantConditions
            do {
                // check term
                if (request.getTerm() >= this.currTerm) {
                    LOG.info("Node {} received RequestVoteRequest from {}, term={}, currTerm={}.", getNodeId(),
                        request.getServerId(), request.getTerm(), this.currTerm);
                    // increase current term, change state to follower
                    if (request.getTerm() > this.currTerm) {
                        stepDown(request.getTerm(), false, new Status(RaftError.EHIGHERTERMRESPONSE,
                            "Raft node receives higher term RequestVoteRequest."));
                    }
                } else {
                    // ignore older term
                    LOG.info("Node {} ignore RequestVoteRequest from {}, term={}, currTerm={}.", getNodeId(),
                        request.getServerId(), request.getTerm(), this.currTerm);
                    break;
                }
                doUnlock = false;
                this.writeLock.unlock();

                final LogId lastLogId = this.logManager.getLastLogId(true);

                doUnlock = true;
                this.writeLock.lock();
                // vote need ABA check after unlock&writeLock
                if (request.getTerm() != this.currTerm) {
                    LOG.warn("Node {} raise term {} when get lastLogId.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm);
                    break;
                }

                final boolean logIsOk = new LogId(request.getLastLogIndex(), request.getLastLogTerm())
                    .compareTo(lastLogId) >= 0;

                if (logIsOk && (this.votedId == null || this.votedId.isEmpty())) {
                    stepDown(request.getTerm(), false, new Status(RaftError.EVOTEFORCANDIDATE,
                        "Raft node votes for some candidate, step down to restart election_timer."));
                    this.votedId = candidateId.copy();
                    this.metaStorage.setVotedFor(candidateId);
                }
            } while (false);

            return RequestVoteResponse.newBuilder() //
                .setTerm(this.currTerm) //
                .setGranted(request.getTerm() == this.currTerm && candidateId.equals(this.votedId)) //
                .build();
        } finally {
            if (doUnlock) {
                this.writeLock.unlock();
            }
        }
    }

    private static class FollowerStableClosure extends LogManager.StableClosure {

        final long                          committedIndex;
        final AppendEntriesResponse.Builder responseBuilder;
        final NodeImpl                      node;
        final RpcRequestClosure             done;
        final long                          term;

        public FollowerStableClosure(final AppendEntriesRequest request,
                                     final AppendEntriesResponse.Builder responseBuilder, final NodeImpl node,
                                     final RpcRequestClosure done, final long term) {
            super(null);
            this.committedIndex = Math.min(
            // committed index is likely less than the lastLogIndex
                request.getCommittedIndex(),
                // The logs after the appended entries can not be trust, so we can't commit them even if their indexes are less than request's committed index.
                request.getPrevLogIndex() + request.getEntriesCount());
            this.responseBuilder = responseBuilder;
            this.node = node;
            this.done = done;
            this.term = term;
        }

        @Override
        public void run(final Status status) {

            if (!status.isOk()) {
                this.done.run(status);
                return;
            }

            this.node.readLock.lock();
            try {
                if (this.term != this.node.currTerm) {
                    // The change of term indicates that leader has been changed during
                    // appending entries, so we can't respond ok to the old leader
                    // because we are not sure if the appended logs would be truncated
                    // by the new leader:
                    //  - If they won't be truncated and we respond failure to the old
                    //    leader, the new leader would know that they are stored in this
                    //    peer and they will be eventually committed when the new leader
                    //    found that quorum of the cluster have stored.
                    //  - If they will be truncated and we responded success to the old
                    //    leader, the old leader would possibly regard those entries as
                    //    committed (very likely in a 3-nodes cluster) and respond
                    //    success to the clients, which would break the rule that
                    //    committed entries would never be truncated.
                    // So we have to respond failure to the old leader and set the new
                    // term to make it stepped down if it didn't.
                    this.responseBuilder.setSuccess(false).setTerm(this.node.currTerm);
                    this.done.sendResponse(this.responseBuilder.build());
                    return;
                }
            } finally {
                // It's safe to release lock as we know everything is ok at this point.
                this.node.readLock.unlock();
            }

            // Don't touch node any more.
            this.responseBuilder.setSuccess(true).setTerm(this.term);

            // Ballot box is thread safe and tolerates disorder.
            this.node.ballotBox.setLastCommittedIndex(this.committedIndex);

            this.done.sendResponse(this.responseBuilder.build());
        }
    }

    @Override
    public Message handleAppendEntriesRequest(final AppendEntriesRequest request, final RpcRequestClosure done) {
        boolean doUnlock = true;
        final long startMs = Utils.monotonicMs();
        this.writeLock.lock();
        final int entriesCount = request.getEntriesCount();
        try {
            if (!this.state.isActive()) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} is not in active state, currTerm={}.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm);
                return RpcFactoryHelper //
                    .responseFactory() //
                    .newResponse(AppendEntriesResponse.getDefaultInstance(), RaftError.EINVAL,
                        "Node %s is not in active state, state %s.", getNodeId(), this.state.name());
            }

            final PeerId serverId = new PeerId();
            if (!serverId.parse(request.getServerId())) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} received AppendEntriesRequest from {} serverId bad format.", getNodeId(),
                    request.getServerId());
                return RpcFactoryHelper //
                    .responseFactory() //
                    .newResponse(AppendEntriesResponse.getDefaultInstance(), RaftError.EINVAL,
                        "Parse serverId failed: %s.", request.getServerId());
            }

            // Check stale term
            if (request.getTerm() < this.currTerm) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} ignore stale AppendEntriesRequest from {}, term={}, currTerm={}.", getNodeId(),
                    request.getServerId(), request.getTerm(), this.currTerm);
                return AppendEntriesResponse.newBuilder() //
                    .setSuccess(false) //
                    .setTerm(this.currTerm) //
                    .build();
            }

            // Check term and state to step down
            checkStepDown(request.getTerm(), serverId);
            if (!serverId.equals(this.leaderId)) {
                LOG.error("Another peer {} declares that it is the leader at term {} which was occupied by leader {}.",
                    serverId, this.currTerm, this.leaderId);
                // Increase the term by 1 and make both leaders step down to minimize the
                // loss of split brain
                stepDown(request.getTerm() + 1, false, new Status(RaftError.ELEADERCONFLICT,
                    "More than one leader in the same term."));
                return AppendEntriesResponse.newBuilder() //
                    .setSuccess(false) //
                    .setTerm(request.getTerm() + 1) //
                    .build();
            }

            updateLastLeaderTimestamp(Utils.monotonicMs());

            if (entriesCount > 0 && this.snapshotExecutor != null && this.snapshotExecutor.isInstallingSnapshot()) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} received AppendEntriesRequest while installing snapshot.", getNodeId());
                return RpcFactoryHelper //
                    .responseFactory() //
                    .newResponse(AppendEntriesResponse.getDefaultInstance(), RaftError.EBUSY,
                        "Node %s:%s is installing snapshot.", this.groupId, this.serverId);
            }

            final long prevLogIndex = request.getPrevLogIndex();
            final long prevLogTerm = request.getPrevLogTerm();
            final long localPrevLogTerm = this.logManager.getTerm(prevLogIndex);
            if (localPrevLogTerm != prevLogTerm) {
                final long lastLogIndex = this.logManager.getLastLogIndex();

                LOG.warn(
                    "Node {} reject term_unmatched AppendEntriesRequest from {}, term={}, prevLogIndex={}, prevLogTerm={}, localPrevLogTerm={}, lastLogIndex={}, entriesSize={}.",
                    getNodeId(), request.getServerId(), request.getTerm(), prevLogIndex, prevLogTerm, localPrevLogTerm,
                    lastLogIndex, entriesCount);

                return AppendEntriesResponse.newBuilder() //
                    .setSuccess(false) //
                    .setTerm(this.currTerm) //
                    .setLastLogIndex(lastLogIndex) //
                    .build();
            }

            if (entriesCount == 0) {
                // heartbeat
                final AppendEntriesResponse.Builder respBuilder = AppendEntriesResponse.newBuilder() //
                    .setSuccess(true) //
                    .setTerm(this.currTerm) //
                    .setLastLogIndex(this.logManager.getLastLogIndex());
                doUnlock = false;
                this.writeLock.unlock();
                // see the comments at FollowerStableClosure#run()
                this.ballotBox.setLastCommittedIndex(Math.min(request.getCommittedIndex(), prevLogIndex));
                return respBuilder.build();
            }

            // Parse request
            long index = prevLogIndex;
            final List<LogEntry> entries = new ArrayList<>(entriesCount);
            ByteBuffer allData = null;
            if (request.hasData()) {
                allData = request.getData().asReadOnlyByteBuffer();
            }

            final List<RaftOutter.EntryMeta> entriesList = request.getEntriesList();
            for (int i = 0; i < entriesCount; i++) {
                index++;
                final RaftOutter.EntryMeta entry = entriesList.get(i);

                final LogEntry logEntry = logEntryFromMeta(index, allData, entry);

                if (logEntry != null) {
                    // Validate checksum
                    if (this.raftOptions.isEnableLogEntryChecksum() && logEntry.isCorrupted()) {
                        long realChecksum = logEntry.checksum();
                        LOG.error(
                            "Corrupted log entry received from leader, index={}, term={}, expectedChecksum={}, realChecksum={}",
                            logEntry.getId().getIndex(), logEntry.getId().getTerm(), logEntry.getChecksum(),
                            realChecksum);
                        return RpcFactoryHelper //
                            .responseFactory() //
                            .newResponse(AppendEntriesResponse.getDefaultInstance(), RaftError.EINVAL,
                                "The log entry is corrupted, index=%d, term=%d, expectedChecksum=%d, realChecksum=%d",
                                logEntry.getId().getIndex(), logEntry.getId().getTerm(), logEntry.getChecksum(),
                                realChecksum);
                    }
                    entries.add(logEntry);
                }
            }

            final FollowerStableClosure closure = new FollowerStableClosure(request, AppendEntriesResponse.newBuilder()
                .setTerm(this.currTerm), this, done, this.currTerm);
            this.logManager.appendEntries(entries, closure);
            // update configuration after _log_manager updated its memory status
            checkAndSetConfiguration(true);
            return null;
        } finally {
            if (doUnlock) {
                this.writeLock.unlock();
            }
            this.metrics.recordLatency("handle-append-entries", Utils.monotonicMs() - startMs);
            this.metrics.recordSize("handle-append-entries-count", entriesCount);
        }
    }

    private LogEntry logEntryFromMeta(final long index, final ByteBuffer allData, final RaftOutter.EntryMeta entry) {
        if (entry.getType() != EnumOutter.EntryType.ENTRY_TYPE_UNKNOWN) {
            final LogEntry logEntry = new LogEntry();
            logEntry.setId(new LogId(index, entry.getTerm()));
            logEntry.setType(entry.getType());
            if (entry.hasChecksum()) {
                logEntry.setChecksum(entry.getChecksum()); // since 1.2.6
            }
            final long dataLen = entry.getDataLen();
            if (dataLen > 0) {
                final byte[] bs = new byte[(int) dataLen];
                assert allData != null;
                allData.get(bs, 0, bs.length);
                logEntry.setData(ByteBuffer.wrap(bs));
            }

            if (entry.getPeersCount() > 0) {
                if (entry.getType() != EnumOutter.EntryType.ENTRY_TYPE_CONFIGURATION) {
                    throw new IllegalStateException(
                        "Invalid log entry that contains peers but is not ENTRY_TYPE_CONFIGURATION type: "
                                + entry.getType());
                }

                fillLogEntryPeers(entry, logEntry);
            } else if (entry.getType() == EnumOutter.EntryType.ENTRY_TYPE_CONFIGURATION) {
                throw new IllegalStateException(
                    "Invalid log entry that contains zero peers but is ENTRY_TYPE_CONFIGURATION type");
            }
            return logEntry;
        }
        return null;
    }

    private void fillLogEntryPeers(final RaftOutter.EntryMeta entry, final LogEntry logEntry) {
        // TODO refactor
        if (entry.getPeersCount() > 0) {
            final List<PeerId> peers = new ArrayList<>(entry.getPeersCount());
            for (final String peerStr : entry.getPeersList()) {
                final PeerId peer = new PeerId();
                peer.parse(peerStr);
                peers.add(peer);
            }
            logEntry.setPeers(peers);
        }

        if (entry.getOldPeersCount() > 0) {
            final List<PeerId> oldPeers = new ArrayList<>(entry.getOldPeersCount());
            for (final String peerStr : entry.getOldPeersList()) {
                final PeerId peer = new PeerId();
                peer.parse(peerStr);
                oldPeers.add(peer);
            }
            logEntry.setOldPeers(oldPeers);
        }

        if (entry.getLearnersCount() > 0) {
            final List<PeerId> peers = new ArrayList<>(entry.getLearnersCount());
            for (final String peerStr : entry.getLearnersList()) {
                final PeerId peer = new PeerId();
                peer.parse(peerStr);
                peers.add(peer);
            }
            logEntry.setLearners(peers);
        }

        if (entry.getOldLearnersCount() > 0) {
            final List<PeerId> peers = new ArrayList<>(entry.getOldLearnersCount());
            for (final String peerStr : entry.getOldLearnersList()) {
                final PeerId peer = new PeerId();
                peer.parse(peerStr);
                peers.add(peer);
            }
            logEntry.setOldLearners(peers);
        }
    }

    // called when leader receive greater term in AppendEntriesResponse
    void increaseTermTo(final long newTerm, final Status status) {
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            if (newTerm < this.currTerm) {
                return;
            }
            stepDown(newTerm, false, status);
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Peer catch up callback
     * @author boyan ([email protected])
     *
     * 2018-Apr-11 2:10:02 PM
     */
    private static class OnCaughtUp extends CatchUpClosure {
        private final NodeImpl node;
        private final long     term;
        private final PeerId   peer;
        private final long     version;

        public OnCaughtUp(final NodeImpl node, final long term, final PeerId peer, final long version) {
            super();
            this.node = node;
            this.term = term;
            this.peer = peer;
            this.version = version;
        }

        @Override
        public void run(final Status status) {
            this.node.onCaughtUp(this.peer, this.term, this.version, status);
        }
    }

    private void onCaughtUp(final PeerId peer, final long term, final long version, final Status st) {
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            // check current_term and state to avoid ABA problem
            if (term != this.currTerm && this.state != State.STATE_LEADER) {
                // term has changed and nothing should be done, otherwise there will be
                // an ABA problem.
                return;
            }
            if (st.isOk()) {
                // Caught up successfully
                this.confCtx.onCaughtUp(version, peer, true);
                return;
            }
            // Retry if this peer is still alive
            if (st.getCode() == RaftError.ETIMEDOUT.getNumber()
                && Utils.monotonicMs() - this.replicatorGroup.getLastRpcSendTimestamp(peer) <= this.options
                    .getElectionTimeoutMs()) {
                LOG.debug("Node {} waits peer {} to catch up.", getNodeId(), peer);
                final OnCaughtUp caughtUp = new OnCaughtUp(this, term, peer, version);
                final long dueTime = Utils.nowMs() + this.options.getElectionTimeoutMs();
                if (this.replicatorGroup.waitCaughtUp(peer, this.options.getCatchupMargin(), dueTime, caughtUp)) {
                    return;
                }
                LOG.warn("Node {} waitCaughtUp failed, peer={}.", getNodeId(), peer);
            }
            LOG.warn("Node {} caughtUp failed, status={}, peer={}.", getNodeId(), st, peer);
            this.confCtx.onCaughtUp(version, peer, false);
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    private void checkDeadNodes(final Configuration conf, final long monotonicNowMs) {
        // Check learner replicators at first.
        for (PeerId peer : conf.getLearners()) {
            checkReplicator(peer);
        }
        // Ensure quorum nodes alive.
        final List<PeerId> peers = conf.listPeers();
        final Configuration deadNodes = new Configuration();
        if (checkDeadNodes0(peers, monotonicNowMs, true, deadNodes)) {
            return;
        }
        LOG.warn("Node {} steps down when alive nodes don't satisfy quorum, term={}, deadNodes={}, conf={}.",
            getNodeId(), this.currTerm, deadNodes, conf);
        final Status status = new Status();
        status.setError(RaftError.ERAFTTIMEDOUT, "Majority of the group dies: %d/%d", deadNodes.size(), peers.size());
        stepDown(this.currTerm, false, status);
    }

    private boolean checkDeadNodes0(final List<PeerId> peers, final long monotonicNowMs, final boolean checkReplicator,
                                    final Configuration deadNodes) {
        final int leaderLeaseTimeoutMs = this.options.getLeaderLeaseTimeoutMs();
        int aliveCount = 0;
        long startLease = Long.MAX_VALUE;
        for (final PeerId peer : peers) {
            if (peer.equals(this.serverId)) {
                aliveCount++;
                continue;
            }
            if (checkReplicator) {
                checkReplicator(peer);
            }
            final long lastRpcSendTimestamp = this.replicatorGroup.getLastRpcSendTimestamp(peer);
            if (monotonicNowMs - lastRpcSendTimestamp <= leaderLeaseTimeoutMs) {
                aliveCount++;
                if (startLease > lastRpcSendTimestamp) {
                    startLease = lastRpcSendTimestamp;
                }
                continue;
            }
            if (deadNodes != null) {
                deadNodes.addPeer(peer);
            }
        }
        if (aliveCount >= peers.size() / 2 + 1) {
            updateLastLeaderTimestamp(startLease);
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

    // in read_lock
    private List<PeerId> getAliveNodes(final Collection<PeerId> peers, final long monotonicNowMs) {
        final int leaderLeaseTimeoutMs = this.options.getLeaderLeaseTimeoutMs();
        final List<PeerId> alivePeers = new ArrayList<>();
        for (final PeerId peer : peers) {
            if (peer.equals(this.serverId)) {
                alivePeers.add(peer.copy());
                continue;
            }
            if (monotonicNowMs - this.replicatorGroup.getLastRpcSendTimestamp(peer) <= leaderLeaseTimeoutMs) {
                alivePeers.add(peer.copy());
            }
        }
        return alivePeers;
    }

    private void handleStepDownTimeout() {
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            if (this.state.compareTo(State.STATE_TRANSFERRING) > 0) {
                LOG.debug("Node {} stop step-down timer, term={}, state={}.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm, this.state);
                return;
            }
            final long monotonicNowMs = Utils.monotonicMs();
            checkDeadNodes(this.conf.getConf(), monotonicNowMs);
            if (!this.conf.getOldConf().isEmpty()) {
                checkDeadNodes(this.conf.getOldConf(), monotonicNowMs);
            }
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Configuration changed callback.
     *
     * @author boyan ([email protected])
     *
     * 2018-Apr-11 2:53:43 PM
     */
    private class ConfigurationChangeDone implements Closure {
        private final long    term;
        private final boolean leaderStart;

        public ConfigurationChangeDone(final long term, final boolean leaderStart) {
            super();
            this.term = term;
            this.leaderStart = leaderStart;
        }

        @Override
        public void run(final Status status) {
            if (status.isOk()) {
                onConfigurationChangeDone(this.term);
                if (this.leaderStart) {
                    getOptions().getFsm().onLeaderStart(this.term);
                }
            } else {
                LOG.error("Fail to run ConfigurationChangeDone, status: {}.", status);
            }
        }
    }

    private void unsafeApplyConfiguration(final Configuration newConf, final Configuration oldConf,
                                          final boolean leaderStart) {
        Requires.requireTrue(this.confCtx.isBusy(), "ConfigurationContext is not busy");
        final LogEntry entry = new LogEntry(EnumOutter.EntryType.ENTRY_TYPE_CONFIGURATION);
        entry.setId(new LogId(0, this.currTerm));
        entry.setPeers(newConf.listPeers());
        entry.setLearners(newConf.listLearners());
        if (oldConf != null) {
            entry.setOldPeers(oldConf.listPeers());
            entry.setOldLearners(oldConf.listLearners());
        }
        final ConfigurationChangeDone configurationChangeDone = new ConfigurationChangeDone(this.currTerm, leaderStart);
        // Use the new_conf to deal the quorum of this very log
        if (!this.ballotBox.appendPendingTask(newConf, oldConf, configurationChangeDone)) {
            Utils.runClosureInThread(configurationChangeDone, new Status(RaftError.EINTERNAL, "Fail to append task."));
            return;
        }
        final List<LogEntry> entries = new ArrayList<>();
        entries.add(entry);
        this.logManager.appendEntries(entries, new LeaderStableClosure(entries));
        checkAndSetConfiguration(false);
    }

    private void unsafeRegisterConfChange(final Configuration oldConf, final Configuration newConf, final Closure done) {

        Requires.requireTrue(newConf.isValid(), "Invalid new conf: %s", newConf);
        // The new conf entry(will be stored in log manager) should be valid
        Requires.requireTrue(new ConfigurationEntry(null, newConf, oldConf).isValid(), "Invalid conf entry: %s",
            newConf);

        if (this.state != State.STATE_LEADER) {
            LOG.warn("Node {} refused configuration changing as the state={}.", getNodeId(), this.state);
            if (done != null) {
                final Status status = new Status();
                if (this.state == State.STATE_TRANSFERRING) {
                    status.setError(RaftError.EBUSY, "Is transferring leadership.");
                } else {
                    status.setError(RaftError.EPERM, "Not leader");
                }
                Utils.runClosureInThread(done, status);
            }
            return;
        }
        // check concurrent conf change
        if (this.confCtx.isBusy()) {
            LOG.warn("Node {} refused configuration concurrent changing.", getNodeId());
            if (done != null) {
                Utils.runClosureInThread(done, new Status(RaftError.EBUSY, "Doing another configuration change."));
            }
            return;
        }
        // Return immediately when the new peers equals to current configuration
        if (this.conf.getConf().equals(newConf)) {
            Utils.runClosureInThread(done);
            return;
        }
        this.confCtx.start(oldConf, newConf, done);
    }

    private void afterShutdown() {
        List<Closure> savedDoneList = null;
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            if (!this.shutdownContinuations.isEmpty()) {
                savedDoneList = new ArrayList<>(this.shutdownContinuations);
            }
            if (this.logStorage != null) {
                this.logStorage.shutdown();
            }
            this.state = State.STATE_SHUTDOWN;
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
        if (savedDoneList != null) {
            for (final Closure closure : savedDoneList) {
                Utils.runClosureInThread(closure);
            }
        }
    }

    @Override
    public NodeOptions getOptions() {
        return this.options;
    }

    public Scheduler getTimerManager() {
        return this.timerManager;
    }

    @Override
    public RaftOptions getRaftOptions() {
        return this.raftOptions;
    }

    @OnlyForTest
    long getCurrentTerm() {
        this.readLock.lock();
        try {
            return this.currTerm;
        } finally {
            this.readLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @OnlyForTest
    ConfigurationEntry getConf() {
        this.readLock.lock();
        try {
            return this.conf;
        } finally {
            this.readLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void shutdown() {
        shutdown(null);
    }

    public void onConfigurationChangeDone(final long term) {
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            if (term != this.currTerm || this.state.compareTo(State.STATE_TRANSFERRING) > 0) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} process onConfigurationChangeDone at term {} while state={}, currTerm={}.",
                    getNodeId(), term, this.state, this.currTerm);
                return;
            }
            this.confCtx.nextStage();
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public PeerId getLeaderId() {
        this.readLock.lock();
        try {
            return this.leaderId.isEmpty() ? null : this.leaderId;
        } finally {
            this.readLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public String getGroupId() {
        return this.groupId;
    }

    public PeerId getServerId() {
        return this.serverId;
    }

    @Override
    public NodeId getNodeId() {
        if (this.nodeId == null) {
            this.nodeId = new NodeId(this.groupId, this.serverId);
        }
        return this.nodeId;
    }

    public RaftClientService getRpcService() {
        return this.rpcService;
    }

    public void onError(final RaftException error) {
        LOG.warn("Node {} got error: {}.", getNodeId(), error);
        if (this.fsmCaller != null) {
            // onError of fsmCaller is guaranteed to be executed once.
            this.fsmCaller.onError(error);
        }
        if (this.readOnlyService != null) {
            this.readOnlyService.setError(error);
        }
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            // If it is leader, need to wake up a new one;
            // If it is follower, also step down to call on_stop_following.
            if (this.state.compareTo(State.STATE_FOLLOWER) <= 0) {
                stepDown(this.currTerm, this.state == State.STATE_LEADER, new Status(RaftError.EBADNODE,
                    "Raft node(leader or candidate) is in error."));
            }
            if (this.state.compareTo(State.STATE_ERROR) < 0) {
                this.state = State.STATE_ERROR;
            }
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    public void handleRequestVoteResponse(final PeerId peerId, final long term, final RequestVoteResponse response) {
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            if (this.state != State.STATE_CANDIDATE) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} received invalid RequestVoteResponse from {}, state not in STATE_CANDIDATE but {}.",
                    getNodeId(), peerId, this.state);
                return;
            }
            // check stale term
            if (term != this.currTerm) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} received stale RequestVoteResponse from {}, term={}, currTerm={}.", getNodeId(),
                    peerId, term, this.currTerm);
                return;
            }
            // check response term
            if (response.getTerm() > this.currTerm) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} received invalid RequestVoteResponse from {}, term={}, expect={}.", getNodeId(),
                    peerId, response.getTerm(), this.currTerm);
                stepDown(response.getTerm(), false, new Status(RaftError.EHIGHERTERMRESPONSE,
                    "Raft node receives higher term request_vote_response."));
                return;
            }
            // check granted quorum?
            if (response.getGranted()) {
                this.voteCtx.grant(peerId);
                if (this.voteCtx.isGranted()) {
                    becomeLeader();
                }
            }
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    private class OnRequestVoteRpcDone extends RpcResponseClosureAdapter<RequestVoteResponse> {

        final long         startMs;
        final PeerId       peer;
        final long         term;
        final NodeImpl     node;
        RequestVoteRequest request;

        public OnRequestVoteRpcDone(final PeerId peer, final long term, final NodeImpl node) {
            super();
            this.startMs = Utils.monotonicMs();
            this.peer = peer;
            this.term = term;
            this.node = node;
        }

        @Override
        public void run(final Status status) {
            NodeImpl.this.metrics.recordLatency("request-vote", Utils.monotonicMs() - this.startMs);
            if (!status.isOk()) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} RequestVote to {} error: {}.", this.node.getNodeId(), this.peer, status);
            } else {
                this.node.handleRequestVoteResponse(this.peer, this.term, getResponse());
            }
        }
    }

    public void handlePreVoteResponse(final PeerId peerId, final long term, final RequestVoteResponse response) {
        boolean doUnlock = true;
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            if (this.state != State.STATE_FOLLOWER) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} received invalid PreVoteResponse from {}, state not in STATE_FOLLOWER but {}.",
                    getNodeId(), peerId, this.state);
                return;
            }
            if (term != this.currTerm) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} received invalid PreVoteResponse from {}, term={}, currTerm={}.", getNodeId(),
                    peerId, term, this.currTerm);
                return;
            }
            if (response.getTerm() > this.currTerm) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} received invalid PreVoteResponse from {}, term {}, expect={}.", getNodeId(), peerId,
                    response.getTerm(), this.currTerm);
                stepDown(response.getTerm(), false, new Status(RaftError.EHIGHERTERMRESPONSE,
                    "Raft node receives higher term pre_vote_response."));
                return;
            }
            LOG.info("Node {} received PreVoteResponse from {}, term={}, granted={}.", getNodeId(), peerId,
                response.getTerm(), response.getGranted());
            // check granted quorum?
            if (response.getGranted()) {
                this.prevVoteCtx.grant(peerId);
                if (this.prevVoteCtx.isGranted()) {
                    doUnlock = false;
                    electSelf();
                }
            }
        } finally {
            if (doUnlock) {
                this.writeLock.unlock();
            }
        }
    }

    private class OnPreVoteRpcDone extends RpcResponseClosureAdapter<RequestVoteResponse> {

        final long         startMs;
        final PeerId       peer;
        final long         term;
        RequestVoteRequest request;

        public OnPreVoteRpcDone(final PeerId peer, final long term) {
            super();
            this.startMs = Utils.monotonicMs();
            this.peer = peer;
            this.term = term;
        }

        @Override
        public void run(final Status status) {
            NodeImpl.this.metrics.recordLatency("pre-vote", Utils.monotonicMs() - this.startMs);
            if (!status.isOk()) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} PreVote to {} error: {}.", getNodeId(), this.peer, status);
            } else {
                handlePreVoteResponse(this.peer, this.term, getResponse());
            }
        }
    }

    // in writeLock
    private void preVote() {
        long oldTerm;
        try {
            LOG.info("Node {} term {} start preVote.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm);
            if (this.snapshotExecutor != null && this.snapshotExecutor.isInstallingSnapshot()) {
                LOG.warn(
                    "Node {} term {} doesn't do preVote when installing snapshot as the configuration may be out of date.",
                    getNodeId(), this.currTerm);
                return;
            }
            if (!this.conf.contains(this.serverId)) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} can't do preVote as it is not in conf <{}>.", getNodeId(), this.conf);
                return;
            }
            oldTerm = this.currTerm;
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }

        final LogId lastLogId = this.logManager.getLastLogId(true);

        boolean doUnlock = true;
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            // pre_vote need defense ABA after unlock&writeLock
            if (oldTerm != this.currTerm) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} raise term {} when get lastLogId.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm);
                return;
            }
            this.prevVoteCtx.init(this.conf.getConf(), this.conf.isStable() ? null : this.conf.getOldConf());
            for (final PeerId peer : this.conf.listPeers()) {
                if (peer.equals(this.serverId)) {
                    continue;
                }
                if (!this.rpcService.connect(peer.getEndpoint())) {
                    LOG.warn("Node {} channel init failed, address={}.", getNodeId(), peer.getEndpoint());
                    continue;
                }
                final OnPreVoteRpcDone done = new OnPreVoteRpcDone(peer, this.currTerm);
                done.request = RequestVoteRequest.newBuilder() //
                    .setPreVote(true) // it's a pre-vote request.
                    .setGroupId(this.groupId) //
                    .setServerId(this.serverId.toString()) //
                    .setPeerId(peer.toString()) //
                    .setTerm(this.currTerm + 1) // next term
                    .setLastLogIndex(lastLogId.getIndex()) //
                    .setLastLogTerm(lastLogId.getTerm()) //
                    .build();
                this.rpcService.preVote(peer.getEndpoint(), done.request, done);
            }
            this.prevVoteCtx.grant(this.serverId);
            if (this.prevVoteCtx.isGranted()) {
                doUnlock = false;
                electSelf();
            }
        } finally {
            if (doUnlock) {
                this.writeLock.unlock();
            }
        }
    }

    private void handleVoteTimeout() {
        this.writeLock.lock();
        if (this.state != State.STATE_CANDIDATE) {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
            return;
        }

        if (this.raftOptions.isStepDownWhenVoteTimedout()) {
            LOG.warn(
                "Candidate node {} term {} steps down when election reaching vote timeout: fail to get quorum vote-granted.",
                this.nodeId, this.currTerm);
            stepDown(this.currTerm, false, new Status(RaftError.ETIMEDOUT,
                "Vote timeout: fail to get quorum vote-granted."));
            // unlock in preVote
            preVote();
        } else {
            LOG.debug("Node {} term {} retry to vote self.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm);
            // unlock in electSelf
            electSelf();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isLeader() {
        this.readLock.lock();
        try {
            return this.state == State.STATE_LEADER;
        } finally {
            this.readLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void shutdown(final Closure done) {
        List<RepeatedTimer> timers = null;
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            LOG.info("Node {} shutdown, currTerm={} state={}.", getNodeId(), this.currTerm, this.state);
            if (this.state.compareTo(State.STATE_SHUTTING) < 0) {
                NodeManager.getInstance().remove(this);
                // If it is leader, set the wakeup_a_candidate with true;
                // If it is follower, call on_stop_following in step_down
                if (this.state.compareTo(State.STATE_FOLLOWER) <= 0) {
                    stepDown(this.currTerm, this.state == State.STATE_LEADER,
                            new Status(RaftError.ESHUTDOWN, "Raft node is going to quit."));
                }
                this.state = State.STATE_SHUTTING;
                // Stop all timers
                timers = stopAllTimers();
                if (this.readOnlyService != null) {
                    this.readOnlyService.shutdown();
                }
                if (this.logManager != null) {
                    this.logManager.shutdown();
                }
                if (this.metaStorage != null) {
                    this.metaStorage.shutdown();
                }
                if (this.snapshotExecutor != null) {
                    this.snapshotExecutor.shutdown();
                }
                if (this.wakingCandidate != null) {
                    Replicator.stop(this.wakingCandidate);
                }
                if (this.fsmCaller != null) {
                    this.fsmCaller.shutdown();
                }
                if (this.rpcService != null) {
                    this.rpcService.shutdown();
                }
                if (this.applyQueue != null) {
                    final CountDownLatch latch = new CountDownLatch(1);
                    this.shutdownLatch = latch;
                    Utils.runInThread(
                        () -> this.applyQueue.publishEvent((event, sequence) -> event.shutdownLatch = latch));
                } else {
                    final int num = GLOBAL_NUM_NODES.decrementAndGet();
                    LOG.info("The number of active nodes decrement to {}.", num);
                }
                if (this.timerManager != null) {
                    this.timerManager.shutdown();
                }
            }

            if (this.state != State.STATE_SHUTDOWN) {
                if (done != null) {
                    this.shutdownContinuations.add(done);
                }
                return;
            }

            // This node is down, it's ok to invoke done right now. Don't invoke this
            // in place to avoid the dead writeLock issue when done.Run() is going to acquire
            // a writeLock which is already held by the caller
            if (done != null) {
                Utils.runClosureInThread(done);
            }
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();

            // Destroy all timers out of lock
            if (timers != null) {
                destroyAllTimers(timers);
            }
        }
    }

    // Should in lock
    private List<RepeatedTimer> stopAllTimers() {
        final List<RepeatedTimer> timers = new ArrayList<>();
        if (this.electionTimer != null) {
            this.electionTimer.stop();
            timers.add(this.electionTimer);
        }
        if (this.voteTimer != null) {
            this.voteTimer.stop();
            timers.add(this.voteTimer);
        }
        if (this.stepDownTimer != null) {
            this.stepDownTimer.stop();
            timers.add(this.stepDownTimer);
        }
        if (this.snapshotTimer != null) {
            this.snapshotTimer.stop();
            timers.add(this.snapshotTimer);
        }
        return timers;
    }

    private void destroyAllTimers(final List<RepeatedTimer> timers) {
        for (final RepeatedTimer timer : timers) {
            timer.destroy();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public synchronized void join() throws InterruptedException {
        if (this.shutdownLatch != null) {
            if (this.readOnlyService != null) {
                this.readOnlyService.join();
            }
            if (this.logManager != null) {
                this.logManager.join();
            }
            if (this.snapshotExecutor != null) {
                this.snapshotExecutor.join();
            }
            if (this.wakingCandidate != null) {
                Replicator.join(this.wakingCandidate);
            }
            this.shutdownLatch.await();
            this.applyDisruptor.shutdown();
            this.shutdownLatch = null;
        }
        if (this.fsmCaller != null) {
            this.fsmCaller.join();
        }
    }

    private static class StopTransferArg {
        final NodeImpl node;
        final long     term;
        final PeerId   peer;

        public StopTransferArg(final NodeImpl node, final long term, final PeerId peer) {
            super();
            this.node = node;
            this.term = term;
            this.peer = peer;
        }
    }

    private void handleTransferTimeout(final long term, final PeerId peer) {
        LOG.info("Node {} failed to transfer leadership to peer {}, reached timeout.", getNodeId(), peer);
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            if (term == this.currTerm) {
                this.replicatorGroup.stopTransferLeadership(peer);
                if (this.state == State.STATE_TRANSFERRING) {
                    this.fsmCaller.onLeaderStart(term);
                    this.state = State.STATE_LEADER;
                    this.stopTransferArg = null;
                }
            }
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    private void onTransferTimeout(final StopTransferArg arg) {
        arg.node.handleTransferTimeout(arg.term, arg.peer);
    }

    /**
     * Retrieve current configuration this node seen so far. It's not a reliable way to
     * retrieve cluster peers info, you should use {@link #listPeers()} instead.
     *
     * @return current configuration.
     *
     * @since 1.0.3
     */
    public Configuration getCurrentConf() {
        this.readLock.lock();
        try {
            if (this.conf != null && this.conf.getConf() != null) {
                return this.conf.getConf().copy();
            }
            return null;
        } finally {
            this.readLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public List<PeerId> listPeers() {
        this.readLock.lock();
        try {
            if (this.state != State.STATE_LEADER) {
                throw new IllegalStateException("Not leader");
            }
            return this.conf.getConf().listPeers();
        } finally {
            this.readLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public List<PeerId> listAlivePeers() {
        this.readLock.lock();
        try {
            if (this.state != State.STATE_LEADER) {
                throw new IllegalStateException("Not leader");
            }
            return getAliveNodes(this.conf.getConf().getPeers(), Utils.monotonicMs());
        } finally {
            this.readLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public List<PeerId> listLearners() {
        this.readLock.lock();
        try {
            if (this.state != State.STATE_LEADER) {
                throw new IllegalStateException("Not leader");
            }
            return this.conf.getConf().listLearners();
        } finally {
            this.readLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public List<PeerId> listAliveLearners() {
        this.readLock.lock();
        try {
            if (this.state != State.STATE_LEADER) {
                throw new IllegalStateException("Not leader");
            }
            return getAliveNodes(this.conf.getConf().getLearners(), Utils.monotonicMs());
        } finally {
            this.readLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void addPeer(final PeerId peer, final Closure done) {
        Requires.requireNonNull(peer, "Null peer");
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            Requires.requireTrue(!this.conf.getConf().contains(peer), "Peer already exists in current configuration");

            final Configuration newConf = new Configuration(this.conf.getConf());
            newConf.addPeer(peer);
            unsafeRegisterConfChange(this.conf.getConf(), newConf, done);
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void removePeer(final PeerId peer, final Closure done) {
        Requires.requireNonNull(peer, "Null peer");
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            Requires.requireTrue(this.conf.getConf().contains(peer), "Peer not found in current configuration");

            final Configuration newConf = new Configuration(this.conf.getConf());
            newConf.removePeer(peer);
            unsafeRegisterConfChange(this.conf.getConf(), newConf, done);
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void changePeers(final Configuration newPeers, final Closure done) {
        Requires.requireNonNull(newPeers, "Null new peers");
        Requires.requireTrue(!newPeers.isEmpty(), "Empty new peers");
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            LOG.info("Node {} change peers from {} to {}.", getNodeId(), this.conf.getConf(), newPeers);
            unsafeRegisterConfChange(this.conf.getConf(), newPeers, done);
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public Status resetPeers(final Configuration newPeers) {
        Requires.requireNonNull(newPeers, "Null new peers");
        Requires.requireTrue(!newPeers.isEmpty(), "Empty new peers");
        Requires.requireTrue(newPeers.isValid(), "Invalid new peers: %s", newPeers);
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            if (newPeers.isEmpty()) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} set empty peers.", getNodeId());
                return new Status(RaftError.EINVAL, "newPeers is empty");
            }
            if (!this.state.isActive()) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} is in state {}, can't set peers.", getNodeId(), this.state);
                return new Status(RaftError.EPERM, "Bad state: %s", this.state);
            }
            // bootstrap?
            if (this.conf.getConf().isEmpty()) {
                LOG.info("Node {} set peers to {} from empty.", getNodeId(), newPeers);
                this.conf.setConf(newPeers);
                stepDown(this.currTerm + 1, false, new Status(RaftError.ESETPEER, "Set peer from empty configuration"));
                return Status.OK();
            }
            if (this.state == State.STATE_LEADER && this.confCtx.isBusy()) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} set peers need wait current conf changing.", getNodeId());
                return new Status(RaftError.EBUSY, "Changing to another configuration");
            }
            // check equal, maybe retry direct return
            if (this.conf.getConf().equals(newPeers)) {
                return Status.OK();
            }
            final Configuration newConf = new Configuration(newPeers);
            LOG.info("Node {} set peers from {} to {}.", getNodeId(), this.conf.getConf(), newPeers);
            this.conf.setConf(newConf);
            this.conf.getOldConf().reset();
            stepDown(this.currTerm + 1, false, new Status(RaftError.ESETPEER, "Raft node set peer normally"));
            return Status.OK();
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void addLearners(final List<PeerId> learners, final Closure done) {
        checkPeers(learners);
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            final Configuration newConf = new Configuration(this.conf.getConf());
            for (final PeerId peer : learners) {
                newConf.addLearner(peer);
            }
            unsafeRegisterConfChange(this.conf.getConf(), newConf, done);
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }

    }

    private void checkPeers(final List<PeerId> peers) {
        Requires.requireNonNull(peers, "Null peers");
        Requires.requireTrue(!peers.isEmpty(), "Empty peers");
        for (final PeerId peer : peers) {
            Requires.requireNonNull(peer, "Null peer");
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void removeLearners(final List<PeerId> learners, final Closure done) {
        checkPeers(learners);
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            final Configuration newConf = new Configuration(this.conf.getConf());
            for (final PeerId peer : learners) {
                newConf.removeLearner(peer);
            }
            unsafeRegisterConfChange(this.conf.getConf(), newConf, done);
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void resetLearners(final List<PeerId> learners, final Closure done) {
        checkPeers(learners);
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            final Configuration newConf = new Configuration(this.conf.getConf());
            newConf.setLearners(new LinkedHashSet<>(learners));
            unsafeRegisterConfChange(this.conf.getConf(), newConf, done);
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void snapshot(final Closure done) {
        doSnapshot(done);
    }

    private void doSnapshot(final Closure done) {
        if (this.snapshotExecutor != null) {
            this.snapshotExecutor.doSnapshot(done);
        } else {
            if (done != null) {
                final Status status = new Status(RaftError.EINVAL, "Snapshot is not supported");
                Utils.runClosureInThread(done, status);
            }
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void resetElectionTimeoutMs(final int electionTimeoutMs) {
        Requires.requireTrue(electionTimeoutMs > 0, "Invalid electionTimeoutMs");
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            this.options.setElectionTimeoutMs(electionTimeoutMs);
            this.replicatorGroup.resetHeartbeatInterval(heartbeatTimeout(this.options.getElectionTimeoutMs()));
            this.replicatorGroup.resetElectionTimeoutInterval(electionTimeoutMs);
            LOG.info("Node {} reset electionTimeout, currTimer {} state {} new electionTimeout {}.", getNodeId(),
                this.currTerm, this.state, electionTimeoutMs);
            this.electionTimer.reset(electionTimeoutMs);
        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public Status transferLeadershipTo(final PeerId peer) {
        Requires.requireNonNull(peer, "Null peer");
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            if (this.state != State.STATE_LEADER) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} can't transfer leadership to peer {} as it is in state {}.", getNodeId(), peer,
                    this.state);
                return new Status(this.state == State.STATE_TRANSFERRING ? RaftError.EBUSY : RaftError.EPERM,
                        "Not a leader");
            }
            if (this.confCtx.isBusy()) {
                // It's very messy to deal with the case when the |peer| received
                // TimeoutNowRequest and increase the term while somehow another leader
                // which was not replicated with the newest configuration has been
                // elected. If no add_peer with this very |peer| is to be invoked ever
                // after nor this peer is to be killed, this peer will spin in the voting
                // procedure and make the each new leader stepped down when the peer
                // reached vote timeout and it starts to vote (because it will increase
                // the term of the group)
                // To make things simple, refuse the operation and force users to
                // invoke transfer_leadership_to after configuration changing is
                // completed so that the peer's configuration is up-to-date when it
                // receives the TimeOutNowRequest.
                LOG.warn(
                    "Node {} refused to transfer leadership to peer {} when the leader is changing the configuration.",
                    getNodeId(), peer);
                return new Status(RaftError.EBUSY, "Changing the configuration");
            }

            PeerId peerId = peer.copy();
            // if peer_id is ANY_PEER(0.0.0.0:0:0), the peer with the largest
            // last_log_id will be selected.
            if (peerId.equals(PeerId.ANY_PEER)) {
                LOG.info("Node {} starts to transfer leadership to any peer.", getNodeId());
                if ((peerId = this.replicatorGroup.findTheNextCandidate(this.conf)) == null) {
                    return new Status(-1, "Candidate not found for any peer");
                }
            }
            if (peerId.equals(this.serverId)) {
                LOG.info("Node {} transferred leadership to self.", this.serverId);
                return Status.OK();
            }
            if (!this.conf.contains(peerId)) {
                LOG.info("Node {} refused to transfer leadership to peer {} as it is not in {}.", getNodeId(), peer,
                    this.conf);
                return new Status(RaftError.EINVAL, "Not in current configuration");
            }

            final long lastLogIndex = this.logManager.getLastLogIndex();
            if (!this.replicatorGroup.transferLeadershipTo(peerId, lastLogIndex)) {
                LOG.warn("No such peer {}.", peer);
                return new Status(RaftError.EINVAL, "No such peer %s", peer);
            }
            this.state = State.STATE_TRANSFERRING;
            final Status status = new Status(RaftError.ETRANSFERLEADERSHIP,
                "Raft leader is transferring leadership to %s", peerId);
            onLeaderStop(status);
            LOG.info("Node {} starts to transfer leadership to peer {}.", getNodeId(), peer);
            final StopTransferArg stopArg = new StopTransferArg(this, this.currTerm, peerId);
            this.stopTransferArg = stopArg;
            this.transferTimer = this.timerManager.schedule(() -> onTransferTimeout(stopArg),
                this.options.getElectionTimeoutMs(), TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);

        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
        return Status.OK();
    }

    private void onLeaderStop(final Status status) {
        this.replicatorGroup.clearFailureReplicators();
        this.fsmCaller.onLeaderStop(status);
    }

    @Override
    public Message handleTimeoutNowRequest(final TimeoutNowRequest request, final RpcRequestClosure done) {
        boolean doUnlock = true;
        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            if (request.getTerm() != this.currTerm) {
                final long savedCurrTerm = this.currTerm;
                if (request.getTerm() > this.currTerm) {
                    stepDown(request.getTerm(), false, new Status(RaftError.EHIGHERTERMREQUEST,
                        "Raft node receives higher term request"));
                }
                LOG.info("Node {} received TimeoutNowRequest from {} while currTerm={} didn't match requestTerm={}.",
                    getNodeId(), request.getPeerId(), savedCurrTerm, request.getTerm());
                return TimeoutNowResponse.newBuilder() //
                    .setTerm(this.currTerm) //
                    .setSuccess(false) //
                    .build();
            }
            if (this.state != State.STATE_FOLLOWER) {
                LOG.info("Node {} received TimeoutNowRequest from {}, while state={}, term={}.", getNodeId(),
                    request.getServerId(), this.state, this.currTerm);
                return TimeoutNowResponse.newBuilder() //
                    .setTerm(this.currTerm) //
                    .setSuccess(false) //
                    .build();
            }

            final long savedTerm = this.currTerm;
            final TimeoutNowResponse resp = TimeoutNowResponse.newBuilder() //
                .setTerm(this.currTerm + 1) //
                .setSuccess(true) //
                .build();
            // Parallelize response and election
            done.sendResponse(resp);
            doUnlock = false;
            electSelf();
            LOG.info("Node {} received TimeoutNowRequest from {}, term={}.", getNodeId(), request.getServerId(),
                savedTerm);
        } finally {
            if (doUnlock) {
                this.writeLock.unlock();
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    @Override
    public Message handleInstallSnapshot(final InstallSnapshotRequest request, final RpcRequestClosure done) {
        if (this.snapshotExecutor == null) {
            return RpcFactoryHelper //
                .responseFactory() //
                .newResponse(InstallSnapshotResponse.getDefaultInstance(), RaftError.EINVAL, "Not supported snapshot");
        }
        final PeerId serverId = new PeerId();
        if (!serverId.parse(request.getServerId())) {
            LOG.warn("Node {} ignore InstallSnapshotRequest from {} bad server id.", getNodeId(), request.getServerId());
            return RpcFactoryHelper //
                .responseFactory() //
                .newResponse(InstallSnapshotResponse.getDefaultInstance(), RaftError.EINVAL,
                    "Parse serverId failed: %s", request.getServerId());
        }

        this.writeLock.lock();
        try {
            if (!this.state.isActive()) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} ignore InstallSnapshotRequest as it is not in active state {}.", getNodeId(),
                    this.state);
                return RpcFactoryHelper //
                    .responseFactory() //
                    .newResponse(InstallSnapshotResponse.getDefaultInstance(), RaftError.EINVAL,
                        "Node %s:%s is not in active state, state %s.", this.groupId, this.serverId, this.state.name());
            }

            if (request.getTerm() < this.currTerm) {
                LOG.warn("Node {} ignore stale InstallSnapshotRequest from {}, term={}, currTerm={}.", getNodeId(),
                    request.getPeerId(), request.getTerm(), this.currTerm);
                return InstallSnapshotResponse.newBuilder() //
                    .setTerm(this.currTerm) //
                    .setSuccess(false) //
                    .build();
            }

            checkStepDown(request.getTerm(), serverId);

            if (!serverId.equals(this.leaderId)) {
                LOG.error("Another peer {} declares that it is the leader at term {} which was occupied by leader {}.",
                    serverId, this.currTerm, this.leaderId);
                // Increase the term by 1 and make both leaders step down to minimize the
                // loss of split brain
                stepDown(request.getTerm() + 1, false, new Status(RaftError.ELEADERCONFLICT,
                    "More than one leader in the same term."));
                return InstallSnapshotResponse.newBuilder() //
                    .setTerm(request.getTerm() + 1) //
                    .setSuccess(false) //
                    .build();
            }

        } finally {
            this.writeLock.unlock();
        }
        final long startMs = Utils.monotonicMs();
        try {
            if (LOG.isInfoEnabled()) {
                LOG.info(
                    "Node {} received InstallSnapshotRequest from {}, lastIncludedLogIndex={}, lastIncludedLogTerm={}, lastLogId={}.",
                    getNodeId(), request.getServerId(), request.getMeta().getLastIncludedIndex(), request.getMeta()
                        .getLastIncludedTerm(), this.logManager.getLastLogId(false));
            }
            this.snapshotExecutor.installSnapshot(request, InstallSnapshotResponse.newBuilder(), done);
            return null;
        } finally {
            this.metrics.recordLatency("install-snapshot", Utils.monotonicMs() - startMs);
        }
    }

    public void updateConfigurationAfterInstallingSnapshot() {
        checkAndSetConfiguration(false);
    }

    private void stopReplicator(final Collection<PeerId> keep, final Collection<PeerId> drop) {
        if (drop != null) {
            for (final PeerId peer : drop) {
                if (!keep.contains(peer) && !peer.equals(this.serverId)) {
                    this.replicatorGroup.stopReplicator(peer);
                }
            }
        }
    }

    @Override
    public UserLog readCommittedUserLog(final long index) {
        if (index <= 0) {
            throw new LogIndexOutOfBoundsException("Request index is invalid: " + index);
        }

        final long savedLastAppliedIndex = this.fsmCaller.getLastAppliedIndex();

        if (index > savedLastAppliedIndex) {
            throw new LogIndexOutOfBoundsException("Request index " + index + " is greater than lastAppliedIndex: "
                                                   + savedLastAppliedIndex);
        }

        long curIndex = index;
        LogEntry entry = this.logManager.getEntry(curIndex);
        if (entry == null) {
            throw new LogNotFoundException("User log is deleted at index: " + index);
        }

        do {
            if (entry.getType() == EnumOutter.EntryType.ENTRY_TYPE_DATA) {
                return new UserLog(curIndex, entry.getData());
            } else {
                curIndex++;
            }
            if (curIndex > savedLastAppliedIndex) {
                throw new IllegalStateException("No user log between index:" + index + " and last_applied_index:"
                                                + savedLastAppliedIndex);
            }
            entry = this.logManager.getEntry(curIndex);
        } while (entry != null);

        throw new LogNotFoundException("User log is deleted at index: " + curIndex);
    }

    @Override
    public void addReplicatorStateListener(final Replicator.ReplicatorStateListener replicatorStateListener) {
        Requires.requireNonNull(replicatorStateListener, "replicatorStateListener");
        this.replicatorStateListeners.add(replicatorStateListener);
    }

    @Override
    public void removeReplicatorStateListener(final Replicator.ReplicatorStateListener replicatorStateListener) {
        Requires.requireNonNull(replicatorStateListener, "replicatorStateListener");
        this.replicatorStateListeners.remove(replicatorStateListener);
    }

    @Override
    public void clearReplicatorStateListeners() {
        this.replicatorStateListeners.clear();
    }

    @Override
    public List<Replicator.ReplicatorStateListener> getReplicatorStatueListeners() {
        return this.replicatorStateListeners;
    }

    @Override
    public int getNodeTargetPriority() {
        return this.targetPriority;
    }

    @Override
    public void describe(final Printer out) {
        // node
        final String _nodeId;
        final String _state;
        final String _leaderId;
        final long _currTerm;
        final String _conf;
        final int _targetPriority;
        this.readLock.lock();
        try {
            _nodeId = String.valueOf(getNodeId());
            _state = String.valueOf(this.state);
            _leaderId = String.valueOf(this.leaderId);
            _currTerm = this.currTerm;
            _conf = String.valueOf(this.conf);
            _targetPriority = this.targetPriority;
        } finally {
            this.readLock.unlock();
        }
        out.print("nodeId: ") //
            .println(_nodeId);
        out.print("state: ") //
            .println(_state);
        out.print("leaderId: ") //
            .println(_leaderId);
        out.print("term: ") //
            .println(_currTerm);
        out.print("conf: ") //
            .println(_conf);
        out.print("targetPriority: ") //
            .println(_targetPriority);

        // timers
        out.println("electionTimer: ");
        this.electionTimer.describe(out);

        out.println("voteTimer: ");
        this.voteTimer.describe(out);

        out.println("stepDownTimer: ");
        this.stepDownTimer.describe(out);

        out.println("snapshotTimer: ");
        this.snapshotTimer.describe(out);

        // logManager
        out.println("logManager: ");
        this.logManager.describe(out);

        // fsmCaller
        out.println("fsmCaller: ");
        this.fsmCaller.describe(out);

        // ballotBox
        out.println("ballotBox: ");
        this.ballotBox.describe(out);

        // snapshotExecutor
        out.println("snapshotExecutor: ");
        this.snapshotExecutor.describe(out);

        // replicators
        out.println("replicatorGroup: ");
        this.replicatorGroup.describe(out);

        // log storage
        if (this.logStorage instanceof Describer) {
            out.println("logStorage: ");
            ((Describer) this.logStorage).describe(out);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "JRaftNode [nodeId=" + getNodeId() + "]";
    }
}