// Copyright 2018 Google LLC
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.

package org.jsoup.examples;

import org.jsoup.Jsoup;
import org.jsoup.helper.StringUtil;
import org.jsoup.helper.Validate;
import org.jsoup.nodes.Document;
import org.jsoup.nodes.Element;
import org.jsoup.nodes.Node;
import org.jsoup.nodes.TextNode;
import org.jsoup.select.Elements;
import org.jsoup.select.NodeTraversor;
import org.jsoup.select.NodeVisitor;

import java.io.IOException;

 * HTML to plain-text. This example program demonstrates the use of jsoup to convert HTML input to lightly-formatted
 * plain-text. That is divergent from the general goal of jsoup's .text() methods, which is to get clean data from a
 * scrape.
 * <p>
 * Note that this is a fairly simplistic formatter -- for real world use you'll want to embrace and extend.
 * </p>
 * <p>
 * To invoke from the command line, assuming you've downloaded the jsoup jar to your current directory:</p>
 * <p><code>java -cp jsoup.jar org.jsoup.examples.HtmlToPlainText url [selector]</code></p>
 * where <i>url</i> is the URL to fetch, and <i>selector</i> is an optional CSS selector.
 * @author Jonathan Hedley, [email protected]
public class HtmlToPlainText {
     * Format an Element to plain-text
     * @param element the root element to format
     * @return formatted text
    public String getPlainText(Element element) {
        FormattingVisitor formatter = new FormattingVisitor();
        NodeTraversor.traverse(formatter, element); // walk the DOM, and call .head() and .tail() for each node

        return formatter.toString();

    // the formatting rules, implemented in a breadth-first DOM traverse
    private class FormattingVisitor implements NodeVisitor {
        private static final int maxWidth = 80;
        private int width = 0;
        private StringBuilder accum = new StringBuilder(); // holds the accumulated text

        // hit when the node is first seen
        public void head(Node node, int depth) {
            String name = node.nodeName();
            if (node instanceof TextNode)
                append(((TextNode) node).text()); // TextNodes carry all user-readable text in the DOM.
            else if (name.equals("li"))
                append("\n * ");
            else if (name.equals("dt"))
                append("  ");
            else if (StringUtil.in(name, "p", "h1", "h2", "h3", "h4", "h5", "tr"))

        // hit when all of the node's children (if any) have been visited
        public void tail(Node node, int depth) {
            String name = node.nodeName();
            if (StringUtil.in(name, "br", "dd", "dt", "p", "h1", "h2", "h3", "h4", "h5"))
            else if (name.equals("a"))
                append(String.format(" <%s>", node.absUrl("href")));

        // appends text to the string builder with a simple word wrap method
        private void append(String text) {
            if (text.startsWith("\n"))
                width = 0; // reset counter if starts with a newline. only from formats above, not in natural text
            if (text.equals(" ") &&
                    (accum.length() == 0 || StringUtil.in(accum.substring(accum.length() - 1), " ", "\n")))
                return; // don't accumulate long runs of empty spaces

            if (text.length() + width > maxWidth) { // won't fit, needs to wrap
                String words[] = text.split("\\s+");
                for (int i = 0; i < words.length; i++) {
                    String word = words[i];
                    boolean last = i == words.length - 1;
                    if (!last) // insert a space if not the last word
                        word = word + " ";
                    if (word.length() + width > maxWidth) { // wrap and reset counter
                        width = word.length();
                    } else {
                        width += word.length();
            } else { // fits as is, without need to wrap text
                width += text.length();

        public String toString() {
            return accum.toString();