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 * Copyright (c) 1996, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * ORACLE PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms.
 *
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package java.lang.reflect;

import sun.reflect.CallerSensitive;
import sun.reflect.ConstructorAccessor;
import sun.reflect.Reflection;
import sun.reflect.generics.repository.ConstructorRepository;
import sun.reflect.generics.factory.CoreReflectionFactory;
import sun.reflect.generics.factory.GenericsFactory;
import sun.reflect.generics.scope.ConstructorScope;
import java.lang.annotation.Annotation;
import java.util.Map;
import sun.reflect.annotation.AnnotationParser;
import java.lang.annotation.AnnotationFormatError;
import java.lang.reflect.Modifier;

/**
 * {@code Constructor} provides information about, and access to, a single
 * constructor for a class.
 *
 * <p>{@code Constructor} permits widening conversions to occur when matching the
 * actual parameters to newInstance() with the underlying
 * constructor's formal parameters, but throws an
 * {@code IllegalArgumentException} if a narrowing conversion would occur.
 *
 * @param <T> the class in which the constructor is declared
 *
 * @see Member
 * @see java.lang.Class
 * @see java.lang.Class#getConstructors()
 * @see java.lang.Class#getConstructor(Class[])
 * @see java.lang.Class#getDeclaredConstructors()
 *
 * @author      Kenneth Russell
 * @author      Nakul Saraiya
 */
public final
    class Constructor<T> extends AccessibleObject implements
                                                    GenericDeclaration,
                                                    Member {

    private Class<T>            clazz;
    private int                 slot;
    private Class<?>[]          parameterTypes;
    private Class<?>[]          exceptionTypes;
    private int                 modifiers;
    // Generics and annotations support
    private transient String    signature;
    // generic info repository; lazily initialized
    private transient ConstructorRepository genericInfo;
    private byte[]              annotations;
    private byte[]              parameterAnnotations;

    // Generics infrastructure
    // Accessor for factory
    private GenericsFactory getFactory() {
        // create scope and factory
        return CoreReflectionFactory.make(this, ConstructorScope.make(this));
    }

    // Accessor for generic info repository
    private ConstructorRepository getGenericInfo() {
        // lazily initialize repository if necessary
        if (genericInfo == null) {
            // create and cache generic info repository
            genericInfo =
                ConstructorRepository.make(getSignature(),
                                           getFactory());
        }
        return genericInfo; //return cached repository
    }

    private volatile ConstructorAccessor constructorAccessor;
    // For sharing of ConstructorAccessors. This branching structure
    // is currently only two levels deep (i.e., one root Constructor
    // and potentially many Constructor objects pointing to it.)
    private Constructor<T>      root;

    /**
     * Package-private constructor used by ReflectAccess to enable
     * instantiation of these objects in Java code from the java.lang
     * package via sun.reflect.LangReflectAccess.
     */
    Constructor(Class<T> declaringClass,
                Class<?>[] parameterTypes,
                Class<?>[] checkedExceptions,
                int modifiers,
                int slot,
                String signature,
                byte[] annotations,
                byte[] parameterAnnotations)
    {
        this.clazz = declaringClass;
        this.parameterTypes = parameterTypes;
        this.exceptionTypes = checkedExceptions;
        this.modifiers = modifiers;
        this.slot = slot;
        this.signature = signature;
        this.annotations = annotations;
        this.parameterAnnotations = parameterAnnotations;
    }

    /**
     * Package-private routine (exposed to java.lang.Class via
     * ReflectAccess) which returns a copy of this Constructor. The copy's
     * "root" field points to this Constructor.
     */
    Constructor<T> copy() {
        // This routine enables sharing of ConstructorAccessor objects
        // among Constructor objects which refer to the same underlying
        // method in the VM. (All of this contortion is only necessary
        // because of the "accessibility" bit in AccessibleObject,
        // which implicitly requires that new java.lang.reflect
        // objects be fabricated for each reflective call on Class
        // objects.)
        Constructor<T> res = new Constructor<>(clazz,
                                                parameterTypes,
                                                exceptionTypes, modifiers, slot,
                                                signature,
                                                annotations,
                                                parameterAnnotations);
        res.root = this;
        // Might as well eagerly propagate this if already present
        res.constructorAccessor = constructorAccessor;
        return res;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the {@code Class} object representing the class that declares
     * the constructor represented by this {@code Constructor} object.
     */
    public Class<T> getDeclaringClass() {
        return clazz;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the name of this constructor, as a string.  This is
     * the binary name of the constructor's declaring class.
     */
    public String getName() {
        return getDeclaringClass().getName();
    }

    /**
     * Returns the Java language modifiers for the constructor
     * represented by this {@code Constructor} object, as an integer. The
     * {@code Modifier} class should be used to decode the modifiers.
     *
     * @see Modifier
     */
    public int getModifiers() {
        return modifiers;
    }

    /**
     * Returns an array of {@code TypeVariable} objects that represent the
     * type variables declared by the generic declaration represented by this
     * {@code GenericDeclaration} object, in declaration order.  Returns an
     * array of length 0 if the underlying generic declaration declares no type
     * variables.
     *
     * @return an array of {@code TypeVariable} objects that represent
     *     the type variables declared by this generic declaration
     * @throws GenericSignatureFormatError if the generic
     *     signature of this generic declaration does not conform to
     *     the format specified in
     *     <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>
     * @since 1.5
     */
    public TypeVariable<Constructor<T>>[] getTypeParameters() {
      if (getSignature() != null) {
        return (TypeVariable<Constructor<T>>[])getGenericInfo().getTypeParameters();
      } else
          return (TypeVariable<Constructor<T>>[])new TypeVariable[0];
    }


    /**
     * Returns an array of {@code Class} objects that represent the formal
     * parameter types, in declaration order, of the constructor
     * represented by this {@code Constructor} object.  Returns an array of
     * length 0 if the underlying constructor takes no parameters.
     *
     * @return the parameter types for the constructor this object
     * represents
     */
    public Class<?>[] getParameterTypes() {
        return (Class<?>[]) parameterTypes.clone();
    }


    /**
     * Returns an array of {@code Type} objects that represent the formal
     * parameter types, in declaration order, of the method represented by
     * this {@code Constructor} object. Returns an array of length 0 if the
     * underlying method takes no parameters.
     *
     * <p>If a formal parameter type is a parameterized type,
     * the {@code Type} object returned for it must accurately reflect
     * the actual type parameters used in the source code.
     *
     * <p>If a formal parameter type is a type variable or a parameterized
     * type, it is created. Otherwise, it is resolved.
     *
     * @return an array of {@code Type}s that represent the formal
     *     parameter types of the underlying method, in declaration order
     * @throws GenericSignatureFormatError
     *     if the generic method signature does not conform to the format
     *     specified in
     *     <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>
     * @throws TypeNotPresentException if any of the parameter
     *     types of the underlying method refers to a non-existent type
     *     declaration
     * @throws MalformedParameterizedTypeException if any of
     *     the underlying method's parameter types refer to a parameterized
     *     type that cannot be instantiated for any reason
     * @since 1.5
     */
    public Type[] getGenericParameterTypes() {
        if (getSignature() != null)
            return getGenericInfo().getParameterTypes();
        else
            return getParameterTypes();
    }


    /**
     * Returns an array of {@code Class} objects that represent the types
     * of exceptions declared to be thrown by the underlying constructor
     * represented by this {@code Constructor} object.  Returns an array of
     * length 0 if the constructor declares no exceptions in its {@code throws} clause.
     *
     * @return the exception types declared as being thrown by the
     * constructor this object represents
     */
    public Class<?>[] getExceptionTypes() {
        return (Class<?>[])exceptionTypes.clone();
    }


    /**
     * Returns an array of {@code Type} objects that represent the
     * exceptions declared to be thrown by this {@code Constructor} object.
     * Returns an array of length 0 if the underlying method declares
     * no exceptions in its {@code throws} clause.
     *
     * <p>If an exception type is a type variable or a parameterized
     * type, it is created. Otherwise, it is resolved.
     *
     * @return an array of Types that represent the exception types
     *     thrown by the underlying method
     * @throws GenericSignatureFormatError
     *     if the generic method signature does not conform to the format
     *     specified in
     *     <cite>The Java&trade; Virtual Machine Specification</cite>
     * @throws TypeNotPresentException if the underlying method's
     *     {@code throws} clause refers to a non-existent type declaration
     * @throws MalformedParameterizedTypeException if
     *     the underlying method's {@code throws} clause refers to a
     *     parameterized type that cannot be instantiated for any reason
     * @since 1.5
     */
      public Type[] getGenericExceptionTypes() {
          Type[] result;
          if (getSignature() != null &&
              ( (result = getGenericInfo().getExceptionTypes()).length > 0  ))
              return result;
          else
              return getExceptionTypes();
      }

    /**
     * Compares this {@code Constructor} against the specified object.
     * Returns true if the objects are the same.  Two {@code Constructor} objects are
     * the same if they were declared by the same class and have the
     * same formal parameter types.
     */
    public boolean equals(Object obj) {
        if (obj != null && obj instanceof Constructor) {
            Constructor<?> other = (Constructor<?>)obj;
            if (getDeclaringClass() == other.getDeclaringClass()) {
                /* Avoid unnecessary cloning */
                Class<?>[] params1 = parameterTypes;
                Class<?>[] params2 = other.parameterTypes;
                if (params1.length == params2.length) {
                    for (int i = 0; i < params1.length; i++) {
                        if (params1[i] != params2[i])
                            return false;
                    }
                    return true;
                }
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Returns a hashcode for this {@code Constructor}. The hashcode is
     * the same as the hashcode for the underlying constructor's
     * declaring class name.
     */
    public int hashCode() {
        return getDeclaringClass().getName().hashCode();
    }

    /**
     * Returns a string describing this {@code Constructor}.  The string is
     * formatted as the constructor access modifiers, if any,
     * followed by the fully-qualified name of the declaring class,
     * followed by a parenthesized, comma-separated list of the
     * constructor's formal parameter types.  For example:
     * <pre>
     *    public java.util.Hashtable(int,float)
     * </pre>
     *
     * <p>The only possible modifiers for constructors are the access
     * modifiers {@code public}, {@code protected} or
     * {@code private}.  Only one of these may appear, or none if the
     * constructor has default (package) access.
     */
    public String toString() {
        try {
            StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();
            int mod = getModifiers() & Modifier.constructorModifiers();
            if (mod != 0) {
                sb.append(Modifier.toString(mod) + " ");
            }
            sb.append(Field.getTypeName(getDeclaringClass()));
            sb.append("(");
            Class<?>[] params = parameterTypes; // avoid clone
            for (int j = 0; j < params.length; j++) {
                sb.append(Field.getTypeName(params[j]));
                if (j < (params.length - 1))
                    sb.append(",");
            }
            sb.append(")");
            Class<?>[] exceptions = exceptionTypes; // avoid clone
            if (exceptions.length > 0) {
                sb.append(" throws ");
                for (int k = 0; k < exceptions.length; k++) {
                    sb.append(exceptions[k].getName());
                    if (k < (exceptions.length - 1))
                        sb.append(",");
                }
            }
            return sb.toString();
        } catch (Exception e) {
            return "<" + e + ">";
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns a string describing this {@code Constructor},
     * including type parameters.  The string is formatted as the
     * constructor access modifiers, if any, followed by an
     * angle-bracketed comma separated list of the constructor's type
     * parameters, if any, followed by the fully-qualified name of the
     * declaring class, followed by a parenthesized, comma-separated
     * list of the constructor's generic formal parameter types.
     *
     * If this constructor was declared to take a variable number of
     * arguments, instead of denoting the last parameter as
     * "<tt><i>Type</i>[]</tt>", it is denoted as
     * "<tt><i>Type</i>...</tt>".
     *
     * A space is used to separate access modifiers from one another
     * and from the type parameters or return type.  If there are no
     * type parameters, the type parameter list is elided; if the type
     * parameter list is present, a space separates the list from the
     * class name.  If the constructor is declared to throw
     * exceptions, the parameter list is followed by a space, followed
     * by the word "{@code throws}" followed by a
     * comma-separated list of the thrown exception types.
     *
     * <p>The only possible modifiers for constructors are the access
     * modifiers {@code public}, {@code protected} or
     * {@code private}.  Only one of these may appear, or none if the
     * constructor has default (package) access.
     *
     * @return a string describing this {@code Constructor},
     * include type parameters
     *
     * @since 1.5
     */
    public String toGenericString() {
        try {
            StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
            int mod = getModifiers() & Modifier.constructorModifiers();
            if (mod != 0) {
                sb.append(Modifier.toString(mod) + " ");
            }
            TypeVariable<?>[] typeparms = getTypeParameters();
            if (typeparms.length > 0) {
                boolean first = true;
                sb.append("<");
                for(TypeVariable<?> typeparm: typeparms) {
                    if (!first)
                        sb.append(",");
                    // Class objects can't occur here; no need to test
                    // and call Class.getName().
                    sb.append(typeparm.toString());
                    first = false;
                }
                sb.append("> ");
            }
            sb.append(Field.getTypeName(getDeclaringClass()));
            sb.append("(");
            Type[] params = getGenericParameterTypes();
            for (int j = 0; j < params.length; j++) {
                String param = (params[j] instanceof Class<?>)?
                    Field.getTypeName((Class<?>)params[j]):
                    (params[j].toString());
                if (isVarArgs() && (j == params.length - 1)) // replace T[] with T...
                    param = param.replaceFirst("\\[\\]$", "...");
                sb.append(param);
                if (j < (params.length - 1))
                    sb.append(",");
            }
            sb.append(")");
            Type[] exceptions = getGenericExceptionTypes();
            if (exceptions.length > 0) {
                sb.append(" throws ");
                for (int k = 0; k < exceptions.length; k++) {
                    sb.append((exceptions[k] instanceof Class)?
                              ((Class<?>)exceptions[k]).getName():
                              exceptions[k].toString());
                    if (k < (exceptions.length - 1))
                        sb.append(",");
                }
            }
            return sb.toString();
        } catch (Exception e) {
            return "<" + e + ">";
        }
    }

    /**
     * Uses the constructor represented by this {@code Constructor} object to
     * create and initialize a new instance of the constructor's
     * declaring class, with the specified initialization parameters.
     * Individual parameters are automatically unwrapped to match
     * primitive formal parameters, and both primitive and reference
     * parameters are subject to method invocation conversions as necessary.
     *
     * <p>If the number of formal parameters required by the underlying constructor
     * is 0, the supplied {@code initargs} array may be of length 0 or null.
     *
     * <p>If the constructor's declaring class is an inner class in a
     * non-static context, the first argument to the constructor needs
     * to be the enclosing instance; see section 15.9.3 of
     * <cite>The Java&trade; Language Specification</cite>.
     *
     * <p>If the required access and argument checks succeed and the
     * instantiation will proceed, the constructor's declaring class
     * is initialized if it has not already been initialized.
     *
     * <p>If the constructor completes normally, returns the newly
     * created and initialized instance.
     *
     * @param initargs array of objects to be passed as arguments to
     * the constructor call; values of primitive types are wrapped in
     * a wrapper object of the appropriate type (e.g. a {@code float}
     * in a {@link java.lang.Float Float})
     *
     * @return a new object created by calling the constructor
     * this object represents
     *
     * @exception IllegalAccessException    if this {@code Constructor} object
     *              is enforcing Java language access control and the underlying
     *              constructor is inaccessible.
     * @exception IllegalArgumentException  if the number of actual
     *              and formal parameters differ; if an unwrapping
     *              conversion for primitive arguments fails; or if,
     *              after possible unwrapping, a parameter value
     *              cannot be converted to the corresponding formal
     *              parameter type by a method invocation conversion; if
     *              this constructor pertains to an enum type.
     * @exception InstantiationException    if the class that declares the
     *              underlying constructor represents an abstract class.
     * @exception InvocationTargetException if the underlying constructor
     *              throws an exception.
     * @exception ExceptionInInitializerError if the initialization provoked
     *              by this method fails.
     */
    @CallerSensitive
    public T newInstance(Object ... initargs)
        throws InstantiationException, IllegalAccessException,
               IllegalArgumentException, InvocationTargetException
    {
        if (!override) {
            if (!Reflection.quickCheckMemberAccess(clazz, modifiers)) {
                Class<?> caller = Reflection.getCallerClass();
                checkAccess(caller, clazz, null, modifiers);
            }
        }
        if ((clazz.getModifiers() & Modifier.ENUM) != 0)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Cannot reflectively create enum objects");
        ConstructorAccessor ca = constructorAccessor;   // read volatile
        if (ca == null) {
            ca = acquireConstructorAccessor();
        }
        return (T) ca.newInstance(initargs);
    }

    /**
     * Returns {@code true} if this constructor was declared to take
     * a variable number of arguments; returns {@code false}
     * otherwise.
     *
     * @return {@code true} if an only if this constructor was declared to
     * take a variable number of arguments.
     * @since 1.5
     */
    public boolean isVarArgs() {
        return (getModifiers() & Modifier.VARARGS) != 0;
    }

    /**
     * Returns {@code true} if this constructor is a synthetic
     * constructor; returns {@code false} otherwise.
     *
     * @return true if and only if this constructor is a synthetic
     * constructor as defined by
     * <cite>The Java&trade; Language Specification</cite>.
     * @since 1.5
     */
    public boolean isSynthetic() {
        return Modifier.isSynthetic(getModifiers());
    }

    // NOTE that there is no synchronization used here. It is correct
    // (though not efficient) to generate more than one
    // ConstructorAccessor for a given Constructor. However, avoiding
    // synchronization will probably make the implementation more
    // scalable.
    private ConstructorAccessor acquireConstructorAccessor() {
        // First check to see if one has been created yet, and take it
        // if so.
        ConstructorAccessor tmp = null;
        if (root != null) tmp = root.getConstructorAccessor();
        if (tmp != null) {
            constructorAccessor = tmp;
        } else {
            // Otherwise fabricate one and propagate it up to the root
            tmp = reflectionFactory.newConstructorAccessor(this);
            setConstructorAccessor(tmp);
        }

        return tmp;
    }

    // Returns ConstructorAccessor for this Constructor object, not
    // looking up the chain to the root
    ConstructorAccessor getConstructorAccessor() {
        return constructorAccessor;
    }

    // Sets the ConstructorAccessor for this Constructor object and
    // (recursively) its root
    void setConstructorAccessor(ConstructorAccessor accessor) {
        constructorAccessor = accessor;
        // Propagate up
        if (root != null) {
            root.setConstructorAccessor(accessor);
        }
    }

    int getSlot() {
        return slot;
    }

   String getSignature() {
            return signature;
   }

    byte[] getRawAnnotations() {
        return annotations;
    }

    byte[] getRawParameterAnnotations() {
        return parameterAnnotations;
    }

    /**
     * @throws NullPointerException {@inheritDoc}
     * @since 1.5
     */
    public <T extends Annotation> T getAnnotation(Class<T> annotationClass) {
        if (annotationClass == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();

        return (T) declaredAnnotations().get(annotationClass);
    }

    /**
     * @since 1.5
     */
    public Annotation[] getDeclaredAnnotations()  {
        return AnnotationParser.toArray(declaredAnnotations());
    }

    private transient Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> declaredAnnotations;

    private synchronized  Map<Class<? extends Annotation>, Annotation> declaredAnnotations() {
        if (declaredAnnotations == null) {
            declaredAnnotations = AnnotationParser.parseAnnotations(
                annotations, sun.misc.SharedSecrets.getJavaLangAccess().
                getConstantPool(getDeclaringClass()),
                getDeclaringClass());
        }
        return declaredAnnotations;
    }

    /**
     * Returns an array of arrays that represent the annotations on the formal
     * parameters, in declaration order, of the method represented by
     * this {@code Constructor} object. (Returns an array of length zero if the
     * underlying method is parameterless.  If the method has one or more
     * parameters, a nested array of length zero is returned for each parameter
     * with no annotations.) The annotation objects contained in the returned
     * arrays are serializable.  The caller of this method is free to modify
     * the returned arrays; it will have no effect on the arrays returned to
     * other callers.
     *
     * @return an array of arrays that represent the annotations on the formal
     *    parameters, in declaration order, of the method represented by this
     *    Constructor object
     * @since 1.5
     */
    public Annotation[][] getParameterAnnotations() {
        int numParameters = parameterTypes.length;
        if (parameterAnnotations == null)
            return new Annotation[numParameters][0];

        Annotation[][] result = AnnotationParser.parseParameterAnnotations(
            parameterAnnotations,
            sun.misc.SharedSecrets.getJavaLangAccess().
                getConstantPool(getDeclaringClass()),
            getDeclaringClass());
        if (result.length != numParameters) {
            Class<?> declaringClass = getDeclaringClass();
            if (declaringClass.isEnum() ||
                declaringClass.isAnonymousClass() ||
                declaringClass.isLocalClass() )
                ; // Can't do reliable parameter counting
            else {
                if (!declaringClass.isMemberClass() || // top-level
                    // Check for the enclosing instance parameter for
                    // non-static member classes
                    (declaringClass.isMemberClass() &&
                     ((declaringClass.getModifiers() & Modifier.STATIC) == 0)  &&
                     result.length + 1 != numParameters) ) {
                    throw new AnnotationFormatError(
                              "Parameter annotations don't match number of parameters");
                }
            }
        }
        return result;
    }
}